Our projects

On going projects

Second phase of review of national air pollution emission inventory data

The general objective of this project is to support the European Commission and the European Environment Agency in carrying-out the review of the national emission inventory data and adjustment applications submitted under NECD in the year 2018. This review should be performed in accordance with article 10(3) and article 5(6) of the new NECD. The aim of inventory improvements by checking transparency, consistency, comparability, completeness and accuracy of submitted data will be achieved. Thus, the review will contribute to establishing accurate, reliable and verified emission inventories for all Member States. The results of the review will inform compliance checking of the current applicable 2010 NECD ceilings, as well as inform future compliance checking of the national emission reduction commitments set in the new NECD. Further the results of the review will inform compliance checking of Member States’ basic obligations of the POPs protocol and heavy metals protocol under the LRTAP Convention and, with respect to mercury, also inform the review of mercury emissions that the Commission is required to do under article 13(3) of the new NECD. Another general objective of this project is to find a common approach to prioritizing and monitoring inventory improvements under the NECD with those of other organizations such as the LRTAP Convention and UNFCCC.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, Umweltbundesamt GmbH (AU), Aether (UK), CITEPA (FR), DCE (DE), RIVM (NL), Ricardo Energy & Environment (UK), SYKE (FI), TNO (NL), VITO (BE), Ardi Link (EE), Bernard Hyde (IR), Intars Cakars (LV), Kevin Hausmann (DE)

Duration: 02/2018 to 11/2018

Study to prepare the adaptation to technical progress of EU requirements on silencing systems containing acoustically absorbing fibrous materials for vehicles of categories M1, M2, M3, N1, N2 and N3

The scope of the study is to investigate the technical and financial feasibility of silencing systems containing acoustically absorbing fibrous materials for M and N vehicles and identify whether fitting such silencing systems to these vehicle categories and proposing improved testing conditions leads to the achievement of improved sound emissions performance. Costs and benefits of new technologies on silencing systems with fibrous materials will be also estimated.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

Contractor: EMISIA, Heinz Steven Data Analysis and Consultancy, LAT/AUTH

Duration: 02/2018 to 10/2018

Development of an application for the reduction of fuel consumption from road transport (iSave)

The European Union has set strict targets for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and 2050. The Framework for Climate and Energy Policies for 2030 requires a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from transport relative to 2008. According to the White Paper on Transport the 2050 target is a 60% reduction compared to 1990. These objectives have been fully specified in the Greek Roadmap for National Energy Planning with a significant reduction in fuel consumption in 2050 by approximately 25% compared to the current levels. In this direction, EMISIA will design and implement a mobile app that will suggest to drivers targeted routing and advice during the journey to improve their driving behavior targeting a fuel consumption reduction. EMISIA will develop an innovative methodology for calculating fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) designed specifically for each vehicle type which will provide the computational background of the software. The application will be addressed to individual drivers and to companies operating captive fleets and will be available through known application stores (Google play, Apple store). Promoting the application to the public will be based both on common practices and on a rewarding system evaluating the driver’s performance.

Sponsor: EYDE-ETAK, action "Research-Create-Innovate", EPANEK 2014-2020

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2018 to 05/2020

Development and demonstrative operation of a small scale combined heat and power unit for the utilization of biomass residues (BIO2CHP)

The purpose of the current proposal is the development of a stand-alone energy production unit, which can utilize raw residual biomass for the small-scale (20-100 kWel) combined production of heat and power, on-site. A pilot-scale prototype has already been developed by Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh), under the LIFE08 ENV GR 576 SMARt-CHP project, and has demonstrated the potential of the technology using untreated residues under real-life conditions reaching a TRL 7 level. Building on the SMARt-CHP project results, EMISIA is collaborating with Hephaestus and Alpha Estate, to finalize all aspects of the product design and its production and commercialization at scale. The result will consist of a 20 kWel unit which will operate independently, controlled by an "intelligent brain", and will be placed inside a standard cargo container for easy transport and installation. It is expected that the unit will be able of reducing energy costs up to 100% and waste management costs up to 88%, increasing profitability and leading to payback periods of less than 3 years. The units will be initially introduced in the market of wineries in the Mediterranean region, and at a later stage to other agro-food sector industries, across Europe and the World.

Sponsor: EYDE-ETAK, action "Research-Create-Innovate", EPANEK 2014-2020

Contractor: EMISIA, Hephaestus, Alpha Estate

Duration: 01/2018 to 05/2020

Provision of Services for Development of Vehicle Emission Visualization Framework

The work envisaged in this study aims to:

  • develop a vehicle emission visualization framework which uses inputs including zero-mile emission factors and deterioration rates of hot running from an emission factor model like EMFAC-HK, vehicle fleet distribution, traffic data and any other data,
  • use this framework to estimate hot running emissions and emission rates (g/km) by road link, similar to the ones in Comprehensive Transport Study (CTS) and
  • display the results by road link on a map.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 11/2017 to 01/2019

Provision of Consultancy Services for Development of Pilot Mesoscale Vehicle Emission Factor Models

The work envisaged in this study aims to develop pilot mesoscale vehicle emission factor models by using a set of real-world second-by-second vehicle emission data measured by portable emission measurement systems (PEMS data).

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Technology Graz, Energy, Air and Risk Associates LLC

Duration: 11/2017 to 05/2019

Electrified L-category Vehicles Integrated into Transport and Electricity Networks - ELVITEN

ELVITEN aims to boost the usage of all categories of EL-Vs (bicycles, scooters, tricycles and quadricycles) in urban environment and, ultimately, to achieve a mind-shift among users by providing them with a better EL-V experience. This will be achieved by designing and offering replicable usage schemes, consisting of support services, ICT tools and policies. The project has three principal objectives: First, it seeks to make users more familiar and facilitate them to use EL-Vs instead of ICE vehicles for their private transport and for light urban deliveries. Second, it attempts to collect rich information sets made of real usage data, traces from dedicated ICT tools, and users’ opinions after real trips. Third, it will generate detailed guidelines and business models for service providers, Planning Authorities and manufacturers in order to make EL-Vs more attractive and more integrated in the transport and electricity networks.

Sponsor: European Commission - Innovation and Networks Executive Agency (INEA), under H2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation

Contractor: ICCS, AAU, AKKA, E-Trikala SA, AUTh, ATOS SA, CdB, CdG, RomaC, Duferco Energia SpA, ICOOR, Promálaga, ERTICO-ITS Europe, FIA, HUBJECT GmbH, KYBURZ, SEAbility Ltd, S3T, EMISIA SA, TB, Univ. of Leeds

Duration: 11/2017 to 10/2020

Life GreenYourMove (GYM)

The main objectives of this project are the development and the promotion of a co-modal journey planning platform to minimize GHG emission in Europe. The project team will first review the current methodologies used to calculate GHG emissions from transport, current policies for promotion of co-modality, then create the GYM database, develop the case-specific co-modal emission calculation models and finally create the platform. Monitoring of the environmental and socio-economic impact of the project will follow along with public presence (website, phone application, workshops, webinars, conferences, networking etc.)         

Sponsor: European Commission, Executive Agency for small and medium-sized enterprises

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Thessaly, AVMAP, CHAPS, PLANNERSTACK, TRAINOSE

Duration: 09/2015 to 08/2018

Finished projects

EU fuel system assessment regarding E20/25 future fuel application

The objective of the study is to investigate the overall sensitivity of future (Euro 6c technology) vehicles and the fuel logistics' system towards mid-blend oxygenate (“E20/25”) petrol.  The work is related to technology potential, environmental effect and costs of introducing mid-blend ethanol to the EU fuel market. It will assess the level of preparedness (compatibility) of the EU fuel system to accept E20/E25 petrol and the intermittent use of these fuels (as it stands now for CEN/TC 19) with E5 and E10 (both in terms of vehicles and fueling stations). It will measure and consider the scale of the changes that would need to be put in place, and the costs involved both at an aggregate level and with a breakdown through the fuel chain.

Sponsor: Nederlands Normalisatie-instituut (ΝΕΝ)

Contractor: EMISIA, Hellenic Naval Academy (GR)

Duration: 09/2017 to 06/2018

Provision of System Maintenance and Supporting Service for the PEMS IT System and PEMS Inventory System

The work envisaged in this study mainly aims at the following objectives:

  • the maintenance of the PEMS IT System and PEMS Inventory System and
  • the update of the Systems on new analyzers, data correction methodology modifications and new data visualization.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 07/2017 to 07/2018

Provision of Service for Analyzing Vehicle Emission Data collected by Portable Emission Measuring Systems

The project aims to carry out an in-depth analysis of PEMS data on typical issues arising from the latest worldwide trends on studying vehicle emission issues and/or vehicle emission model development and any other ad hoc projects initiated by the Government Representative. The project addresses the following 3 topics for which the appropriate data analysis will be carried out:

  • light Goods Vehicles, Euro 4–6, with GVW>3.5t (LGV6) analysis,
  • investigation of vehicles with suspected defeat devices and
  • heavy Goods Vehicles with GVW>15t (HGV8) analysis.
The general outline of each task includes four phases:
  • methodology development,
  • calculation and evaluation,
  • report and
  • publication.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Queensland

Duration: 07/2017 to 07/2018

Provision of System Maintenance and Supporting Service for the PEMS IT System and PEMS Inventory System

The work envisaged in this study mainly aims at the following objectives:

  • The maintenance of the PEMS IT System and PEMS Inventory System,
  • The update of the Systems on new analysers, data correction methodology modifications and new data visualization.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 07/2017 to 07/2018

VP Waivers 3

The purpose of this project was to provide the EFTA Surveillance Authority with an assessment of the Norwegian Government’s request for an exemption from the vapor pressure requirements for low ambient summer temperatures pursuant to Article 3(4) and 3(5) of Directive 98/70/EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels. The overall objectives of this assessment were to evaluate the validity of the assumptions and methods employed by the Norwegian Government in its request. Certain conditions for these requests were set out in Directive 2009/30/EC and in a Guidance Note prepared by the European Commission. This was an assessment of information submitted by the Norwegian Government to date (June 2017). It was updated with a review of any further information submitted in support of the derogation request. This assessment has been undertaken according to a methodology and format agreed between EMISIA and the EFTA Surveillance Authority at project inception. It was focused on the second criterion set out in the EC’s Guidance Note assessing compliance with EU air quality and pollution legislation.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment and Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2017 to 05/2017

Technical support for the development of the WLTP Phase 2 and for RDE

An experimental measurement campaign to compare the thermal loads of the Standard Road Cycle (SRC) vs. WLTP, accompanied with a modelling study will be designed and carried out. All available data and knowledge on the deterioration of current and future pollution control devices will be collected. An analysis of the durability of EGR systems will be carried out. By analyzing this info, a revised accelerated bench durability procedure shall be proposed. Further, analysis for the evaluation methods and boundaries for RDE will be provided, by setting up a database of PEMS data from various stakeholders with appropriate easy to use structure, by assessing various methods for evaluating the PEMS data with the objective of proposing a single method, and by assess the percentage of real driving that is not currently accounted for in the RDE procedures as these are defined in RDE1 to RDE3.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 05/2017 to 07/2018

Test campaign on saving from eco-innovation components

This study provided sufficient evidence for the evaluation of the validity of the type-approval values of 3 high efficiency alternators, as well as the appropriateness of the testing methodologies defined in the corresponding European Commission Implementing Decisions. Specifically, we:

  • tested 3 high efficiency alternators in accordance with the approved testing methodologies defined in the corresponding EC Implementing Decisions and
  • prepared a detailed technical report (including raw measured data, and test results for each component tested. The reports included a brief qualitative analysis of the testing methodology and its appropriateness for determining CO2 emissions savings.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, ICF Consulting Ltd, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 02/2017 to 04/2017

Comprehensive review, including capacity-building, of member states’ emissions inventories under the directive on national emissions for certain atmospheric pollutants

The primary objective of this project was to perform a comprehensive technical review of Member States NECD inventories of the years 2005, 2010 and 2015 as reported in February 2017 (according to the new NECD) to ensure that the Commission has accurate, reliable and verified information on annual NECD emissions to determine compliance with the NEC Directive targets. A secondary objective was to strengthen Member States’ capacity in managing NECD inventories efficiently and in delivering high quality reports to the European Commission. The carefully selected team provided a blend of national expertise and included some of the most experienced inventory experts that EU Member States have to offer. Our proposed approach helped to continue to build capacity in the EU for the NECD and CLRTAP inventory management and reporting. The review also seeked to harmonize approaches in monitoring inventories reported under the NECD with other organizations with similar interests such as the LRTAP Convention and the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism (MMR)/United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, Umweltbundesamt GmbH, Aether, CITEPA, DCE, SYKE, TNO, VITO, Ricardo, RIVM

Duration: 01/2017 to 02/2018

Provision of Services for Development of Pilot Microscale Vehicle Emission Factor Models

The study aims to develop pilot microscale vehicle emission factor models, using a set of real-world second-by-second vehicle emission data measured using PEMS. The project team will formulate conceptual and analytical methodologies for the prediction emission rates and proceed with the development, testing and validation of the corresponding pilot emission factor models based on PEMS data from real-world driving measurements.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Technology Graz, Energy, Air and Risk Associates LLC

Duration: 01/2017 to 07/2018

Integrated Assessment Modelling services to support the development of a Clean Air Outlook summarising progress towards achievement of the EU's air quality and emissions objectives

The overall objective of the project is to provide relevant input to the inaugural Clean Air Forum and the forthcoming reviews under the revised NECD. Specific tasks relate to an update of the analytical framework to reflect the latest developments since the TSAP report #16. In particular, the analytical framework should include: the new PRIMES 2016 REFERENCE scenario, the Climate and Energy Policy as finally proposed by the Commission, the recently adopted source control measures, recent improvements and recalculations of reported historic emissions by Member States. Special focus need to be put on issues that are particularly relevant for implementation, including measures to address pollution from specific sectors, as well as on the economic stimulus to the overall economy from the implementation of these measures.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: IIASA, EMISIA, EMRC, Umweltbundesamt, RIVM

Duration: 12/2016 to 10/2017

Quantifying the impact of Intelligent Transport Systems on the fuel consumption of light-duty vehicles on the road network

The overall objective of the study is to provide European Commission with a matrix of reasons why system wide deployment of so-called eco-ITS may deliver different levels of GHG benefits from tests of deployment on single vehicles.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid

Duration: 11/2016 to 03/2017

Impacts of ethanol and fuel ethers on the well-to-wheels CO2 emissions and fuel evaporation emissions

The principal objectives of this study were:

  • To assess the permeation data generated by Kautex-Textron with a view to include these in COPERT 5.
  • To assess the ethanol/benzene azeotropic effect and its impact on benzene emissions from the European vehicle fleet, using the SIBYL model.
  • To analyse the “downstream CO2 emissions saving” potential of ETBE occurring at fuel formulation level during refinery operation, as a result of the biofuels technical specifications.

Sponsor: European Fuel Oxygenates Association (EFOA)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 10/2016 to 12/2017

Provision of Services for System Enhancement and Post Processing

The study aims to carry out the migration of PEMS data from the existing to the new database, perform workflow and metadata enhancements of the PEMS Inventory System and provide additional visualisation for the Online Portal in the form of various charts and tables (time-dependent, emission rates, trends, etc.) for a more intuitive and straightforward post-processing of the PEMS database. In addition, the integrated and enhanced PEMS system will ensure a smooth interconnection between the PEMS Inventory system, the Online Portal and the underlying Oracle database.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 10/2016 to 06/2017

Study on Euro 5 sound level limits of L-category vehicles

The scope of the study is to explore and propose new sound level limits at a Euro 5 step of L-category vehicles, taking into account the evolution of sound levels of approved vehicle types, the citizens’ needs, and the technical and economic feasibility in the medium term range. The new sound limits to be proposed should be accompanied by an appropriate timeframe for their application.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, RICARDO, Heinz Steven Data Analysis and Consultancy

Duration: 10/2016 to 10/2017

Provision of services for Analyzing Vehicle Emission Data collected by Portable Emission Measuring Systems (PEMS)

The work in this study aimed to carry out an in-depth analysis of PEMS data on typical issues arising from the latest worldwide trends on studying vehicle emission issues and vehicle emission model development. The focus of this analysis was to investigate the operation of the SCR retrofit and evaluate its overall performance, to investigate the effectiveness of the LPG catalyst replacement initiative, to study the impact of road grade on emissions, to examine the potential and analyze the perspectives of implementing the Euro 6 data processing method in the city of Hong Kong and to evaluate the hybrid buses operation and performance. Furthermore, several observations on the data and the results were made, critical conclusions were drawn, and practical recommendations were proposed by the project team.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Queensland

Duration: 07/2016 to 06/2017

Provision of Services for Analysing Vehicle Emission Data collected by Portable Emission Measuring Systems

The work in this study aims to carry out an in-depth analysis of PEMS data on typical issues arising from the latest worldwide trends on studying vehicle emission issues and vehicle emission model development. The focus of this analysis will be to investigate the operation of the SCR retrofit and evaluate its overall performance, to investigate the effectiveness of the LPG catalyst replacement initiative, to study the impact of road grade on emissions, to examine the potential and analyse the perspectives of implementing the Euro 6 data processing method in the city of Hong Kong and to evaluate the hybrid buses operation and performance. Furthermore, several observations on the data and the results will be made, critical conclusions will be drawn, and practical recommendations will be proposed by the project team.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 07/2016 to 06/2017

Provision of Services for Database Implementation and System Development of the On-line Management Portal

The work envisaged in this study aims to set up the PEMS database in Oracle database 12c according to the new database design, as well as conduct System Analysis and Design and implement a web application for performing data processing and data analysis. The new system is envisioned to utilize all PEMS-related procedures in the form of this web application, called the online management portal (or Online Portal), i.e. to act as a single platform serving all data input/output and processing, interconnect all required modules such as the data uploader and time alignment and have the new database at its core.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2016 to 05/2017

Update of the CO2 Manufacturer Monitoring Tool

To reduce CO2 emissions in the road transport sector, the European Parliament and the Council adopted Regulation (EC) No 443/2009, which introduced mandatory CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars. In order to evaluate the progress of manufacturers towards their targets, the European Environment Agency collects and quality-checks data on CO2 emissions from passenger cars registered in all EU Member States since 2010. The analysis of this dataset showed that dieselization is one of the main drivers for the emissions reductions of the large manufacturers. However, there were a few other strategies (e.g. downsizing, hybridization, etc.) followed by the different manufacturers for meeting their targets. A further analysis of the above data would be useful for TME for benchmarking competitors’ strategies.

Sponsor: Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 04/2016 to 07/2016

Services and tools for the calculation and monitoring of vehicle emissions

This project included:

  • support on emission monitoring: Support on mission and emission monitoring for upgrading emission and freight models. This included updates and revisions of the emission functions from the COPERT model (v11.3) and relevant loading and gradient corrections for light commercial vehicles, previously delivered to IVECO in an MS Excel spreadsheet. The results from this activity were incorporated into the traffic and emissions simulation platform developed in the framework of the “ICT Emissions” project,
  • validation of results: The results from this activity were incorporated into the traffic and emissions simulation platform developed in the framework of the “ICT Emissions” project and
  • delivery of the SIBYL model: One license of SIBYL v4.0 – officially released in July 2015 – were delivered to IVECO. The license was not expirable for the particular software version. The license also covered any versions with software updates (e.g. v4.1, v4.2, etc.). It did not cover subsequent versions with major methodological updates (e.g. v5.0).

Sponsor: IVECO SpA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 03/2016 to 04/2016

Euro 5 Effect study for L-category vehicles

The objective of this study was to provide the European Commission with the set of environmental requirements for the Euro 5 stage for L-category vehicles, as mandated by Regulation (EU) No 168/2013. An experimental programme, feasibility assessments and cost-benefit analyses on the measures within the Euro 5 environmental step (test Types I-VIII, excluding test Type VI), as well as on in-service conformity, off-cycle emissions and particulate number emissions limit have been performed. Based on the outcomes of the study, the Commission will make the appropriate legislative proposals for Euro 5, and for the beyond Euro 5 elements into future type-approval legislation.

Sponsor: European Commission, Directorate-General for the Internal Market, Industry

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh, TNO, Heinz Steven Data Analysis and Consultancy

Duration: 11/2015 to 06/2017

Provision of services for the design of a new database and data analysis of vehicle measurement

This study aims at the recommendation of improvements in the database that is currently used, the analysis of the handling of the measurement data as well as the proposition of a new database design with improved characteristics. The project team will allow tractability of the raw information and future expansion of the new database, conduct data analysis of measurement data and incorporate them into the new database design, incorporate all the recommendations related to database of document in Appendix I of the invitation to quotation into the database design and finally provide documentation on all the work, including quality assurance and quality control procedures.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, Cluster Technology

Duration: 09/2015 to 02/2016

Study on enhanced sound requirements for mopeds, quads and replacement silencers of L-category vehicles

The scope of the study is to perform due diligence on noise control regulations from power two wheelers proposed at UN level, before considering their accession into the EU type approval system. Particular emphasis will be given on the consideration of market surveillance and enforcement practices of the particular legislation.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh, TNO, TÜV NORD, Heinz Steven Data Analysis and Consultancy

Duration: 08/2015 to 08/2016

Exchanging experience between the EU and China on the use of the COPERT model for transport for better National Climate Communication

The objectives of the project were: i. To improve understanding of the contribution of transport to greenhouse gas emissions in China through use of EU experience and implementation of the COPERT model. ii. To promote cooperation in this area between EU and China experts and allow easier exchanges between EU and China policy makers on their respective transport data and policies to address the climate (and wider) impacts of transport. iii. To support the process of developing policies to reduce transport climate and air pollution impact in China.

Sponsor: EU-China Policy Dialogue Support Facility II

Contractor: EMISIA, Energy Research Institute (China), European Union Delegation in China

Duration: 06/2015 to 06/2016

Impact of fleet renewal strategies on NOx and PM emissions from light duty vehicles within the context of the upcoming RDE legislation

The objectives of this study are (a) to formulate alternative fleet renewal scenarios for light duty and heavy duty vehicles in SIBYL with projections up to 2040 and to (b) to properly justify the results in a short report and a presentation.

Sponsor: ACEA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 05/2015 to 06/2015

Update and extension of the CO2 Manufacturer Monitoring Tool

The principal objectives of this contract were:

  • to update the MMT tool with the latest reported data submitted by the EU MS for the year 2014 for the six OEMs (Volkswagen, FIAT, Ford, BMW, Lexus, Toyota) that are currently included in the tool,
  • to extend the current tool by including three more OEMs: Peugeot, Renault, Opel and
  • to provide software support (by e-mail consultation) and maintenance (debugging and new releases) up to a maximum of three working days.

Sponsor: Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 04/2015 to 07/2015

Comparison TREMOD – COPERT

With the aim to compare TREMOD and COPERT the following steps are envisaged: (a) Description of the features and expected developments for the two models; (b) Description of the activity data used in the two models; (c) Calculations with the two models for five test cases and assessment of results.

Sponsor: Bundesamt für Strassenwesen, Germany

Contractor: EMISIA, INFRAS, IFEU

Duration: 04/2015 to 04/2016

Assessment of options for monitoring heavy duty vehicles’ CO2 emissions and their costs

The European Commission intends to propose HDV CO2 certification, monitoring and reporting legislation in 2016. As regards monitoring and reporting, it started working on an Impact Assessment to fully assess and compare the identified monitoring and reporting options. To this aim the project objectives are (a) to re-assess the TNO report’s options by carrying out an analysis of the feasibility, robustness, effectiveness, representativeness and pros and cons of the options identified by TNO et al. (2015) and any other relevant monitoring options identified in this study, (b) to assess options’ costs for the main stakeholders and (c) further assistance of the Commission in assessing data monitoring and management needs and costs at EU level. The first two objectives of the project will inform the Impact Assessment to be developed by the Commission services, underpinning legislation on monitoring and reporting of HDV CO2.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Clima

Contractor: EMISIA, CE Delft, TU Graz

Duration: 04/2015 to 08/2015

Impact of fuels and ICT on CO2 emissions from road traffic

Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA (TME) uses the SIBYL model for projection of emissions from road transport and requested for assessing the impact of alternative fuel pathways as well as from the uptake of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) measures on CO2 emissions from road traffic. This project aimed at using SIBYL projections to assess, on top of vehicle technology measures that could be used to reduce CO2 emissions, how much fuel related measures and the contribution of information and communication technologies (ICT) could assist in this direction. The principal objectives of the project were:

  • to formulate a proper baseline scenario in SIBYL with projections up to 2030,
  • to enable the assessment of upstream CO2 emissions reduction potential from alternative fuel pathways,
  • to enable the assessment of additional CO2 emissions reduction potential from ICT measures,
  • to properly justify the above in a final report and a presentation.

Sponsor: Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 03/2015 to 07/2015

Use of COPERT for estimating evaporative emissions from fuel ethers

This study provides to the European Fuel Oxygenates Association our comparative estimation of evaporative emissions from different fuels containing ethanol and ETBE. To this aim the main parameters of fuel ethers having an effect on evaporative emissions were investigated and modeled in COPERT, the expected evaporative VOC emissions for each of the scenarios considered were estimated and finally recommendations on the relative advantages of fuel ethers over ethanol blends were provided.

Sponsor: European Fuel Oxygenates Association (EFOA)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2015 to 06/2015

Provision of Services for Quality Assurance of the Portable Emission Measuring Systems (PEMS)

The aim of this project is to understand and review current methods, tools, and procedures for PEMS data handling in Hong Kong, recommend improvements in the process which is currently applied, collect PEMS data to confirm quality using specially developed detection algorithm(s) and finally discuss and propose future PEMS data collection strategy.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Queensland, City University of Hong Kong

Duration: 01/2015 to 10/2015

Emissions by the transport sector – Rail and Inland Waterways

The main objective is to support Eurostat in identifying and evaluating suitable data and methods for assessing the impact of railway and inland waterways transport on GHG emissions. To this aim, the main requirements of the project are: i) assessment of the policy needs for statistical information on CO2 emissions by the rail and inland waterways transport sectors; ii) study and evaluation of methods and data used for the estimation of CO2 emissions by the rail and inland waterways transport sectors; iii) recommendation of suitable methods to be used by Eurostat; iv) feasibility study of extending Eurostat’s rail and inland waterways transport statistics system to accommodate the additional data needed for emission estimation; and v) extension of the published statistics for emissions by the rail and inland waterways transport sectors.

Sponsor: Eurostat

Contractor: EMISIA, Infras, City University Hong Kong

Duration: 12/2014 to 06/2015

Preparation of the legal and technical background for proposing a future voluntary EU low emission standard for low emitting combustion engine driven cars (EULES)

The European Commission is considering the introduction of a voluntary emission standard for passenger cars (EULES) that will deliver real-world emission levels below the most stringent current emission limits. These emission levels will have to be verified by measuring the vehicle according to the measurement protocol foreseen in the framework of the Real Drive Emissions (RDE) regulations. This project aims at developing a first understanding on the potential of EULES as well as developing the technical and legal ground for its implementation. It consists of two major objectives: i) assess the market response to such a standard, and ii) verify and demonstrate whether state-of-the-art Euro 6 cars can reach RDE levels which are below the Euro 6 emission limit values, by further optimization of their emission control systems.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, IIASA, ICCT, AVL, Open Evidence

Duration: 12/2014 to 04/2016

Study for the determination of a NO2 limit and its introduction in the legislation on type-approval of vehicles with respect to emissions for light-duty (Euro 6) and heavy-duty (Euro 6)’

This proposal outlined a study aiming at introducing a NO2 limit for both Euro 6 LDV and EURO 6 HDV. It addressed the link between vehicle emissions and NO2 air quality objectives, in urban areas. The topic was addressed in a broad manner, such that all steps of the road map for implementation of a final legislative proposal were addressed:

  • background and justification of NO2 limits,
  • different policy options for reduction of NO2 emissions for LDV and HDV,
  • technical and legislative options,
  • costs/benefits of several NO2 reduction levels for LDV and HDV individually,
  • costs to car owners and total societal costs,
  • benefits regarding improvements in urban air quality at hot spots and value of environmental and health benefits in general,
  • governmental and industrial stakeholders’ consultation,
  • synergy with other EU goals.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry

Contractor: EMISIA, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNA, TU Graz, LAT/AUTh, FVT mBH, Heinrich Steven Josef, Vienna University of Technology, Ricardo

Duration: 10/2014 to 10/2016

Literature Review of European Vehicle Emission Model

The objectives of the study are to (a) assess the future requirements for vehicle emission modelling by EPD, which includes an examination of input data availability in Hong Kong, (b) conduct a detailed review of the existing vehicle emission models and new methodologies in Europe, and (c) recommend the best approach for the development of the new generation vehicle emission model specifically for Hong Kong, based on the European situation.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, Infras, City University Hong Kong, University of Queensland

Duration: 03/2014 to 06/2015

Modeling the contribution of EU emission control instruments (for fixed, mobile and diffuse sources) to future pollution reduction objectives

The aim of the project is to provide supplementary analyses of the emission reduction scenarios developed with the GAINS model for the air quality policy package, by determining to the extent possible the contribution to emission reductions that a set of EU legislative instruments (a) will deliver in the period up to 2030, following currently adopted legislation, and (b) would additionally deliver in 2025 and 2030, in addition to the CLE baseline, as part of the set of measures needed to meet the emission reductions objectives set by the proposed air quality policy package.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, IIASA, EMRC

Duration: 02/2014 to 02/2015

Provision of services for the simulation of light duty vehicles

The principal objective of this contract was to carry out vehicle simulation work on behalf of DEKRA (contractor to the German Federal Highway Research Agency - BASt) using AVL’s CRUISE model. To this aim, the model was calibrated with selected results of the emissions tests conducted by DEKRA, and the calibrated model was reviewed and further elaborated by using test results of additional vehicles tested.

Sponsor: DEKRA Automobil GmbH

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2014 to 05/2014

Simulation and testing of light commercial vehicles for the correlation of CO2 emissions values measured on NEDC and WLTP

The main objective is to provide a technical analysis of how a representative range of N1 vehicles and technologies perform on the existing (NEDC) and the new (WLTP) type-approval procedure to enable a robust comparison of the emission values over the two tests. To this aim, approximately 8 individual vehicles will be simulated with different technology packages to model current technology variations and technology developments expected in the future. For the calibration and validation of the vehicle simulation model two representative vehicles will be tested over specific driving cycles.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG

Duration: 01/2014 to 05/2014

Evaluations of Member State requests for exemptions from the vapor pressure requirements for petrol pursuant to Article 3(4) and (5) of Directive 2009/30/EC relating to the quality of petrol

The main purpose for the service contract, as set out in the tender specifications, was to provide consultancy services to DG Climate Action related to the assessment of environmental impact of the vapor pressure derogation requests submitted by EU Member States pursuant to the Fuel Quality Directive. The main requirements of the project were as follows:

  • to check the completeness of the notification submitted by Member States requesting an exemption from the summer petrol vapor pressure requirements,
  • to assess the appropriateness and completeness of the methods employed in each of the Member State’s arguments for a waiver,
  • to provide recommendations on the appropriateness of each waiver request.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment & Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 12/2013 to 06/2015

Development of a tool for assessing the fleet-level impacts of new road transport technologies, with emphasis in electromobility (DIONE)

The principal objective of this project is to develop a software fleet-impact assessment tool. The tool shall be able develop scenarios in order to test new policies, develop alternative approaches and assess the impacts of technological changes in the vehicle fleets and fuels in Europe, in Member States and in individual regions.

Sponsor: European Commission – Joint Research Centre

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 11/2013 to 03/2015

‘Best Available Techniques’ for mobile sources in support of a Guidance Document to the Gothenburg Protocol of the LRTAP Convention

The main objective is the identification and evaluation of ‘Best Available Techniques’ (BAT) to control and reduce emissions from mobile sources. The project will provide the technical background in order to update the Guidance Document supporting the implementation of the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol of the UNECE LRTAP Convention. Main expected project achievements:

  • major advances in engine/exhaust control techniques
  • extend scope of pollutants (e.g. PM control)
  • extend range of mobile sources covered (e.g. sea going ships, aircrafts)
  • offer ‘best’ options from a range of proven (technical and non-technical) measures to reduce pollutant emissions from mobile sources

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, IIASA (AT)

Duration: 11/2013 to 12/2014

Inventory Improvement Program 2013 – Review of data and methods to calculate GHG emissions from alternative fuel transport

The overall aim of the Improvement Program was to provide research and development projects to improve and develop the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). The specific aims of this project were:

  • to identify source(s) of data that provide numbers of AFVs on UK roads, and their associated emissions,
  • to identify the potential effect of AFVs on transport emissions levels, and therefore suggest an emissions level at which these figures could or should be publicly reported,
  • to review how other EU MS collate and use data on this issue for potential application to the UK inventory.

Sponsor: UK Department of Energy & Climate Change

Contractor: EMISIA, Aether

Duration: 09/2013 to 12/2013

Simulation and testing of light duty vehicles with a view to ensuring the correlation of CO2 emission values measured on NEDC and WLTP

The main objective is to provide a technical analysis of how a representative range of M1 vehicles and technologies perform on the existing (NEDC) and the new (WLTP) type-approval procedure to enable a robust comparison of the emission values over the two tests. To this aim, approximately 20 individual vehicles will be simulated with different technology packages to model current technology variations and technology developments expected in the future. For the calibration and validation of the vehicle simulation model a number of vehicles will be tested over specific driving cycles.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 09/2013 to 12/2014

Study on the technological neutrality of light-duty vehicle CO2 emissions

The principal objective of this contract was to provide technical input to AECC in terms of a designing a revised approach for CO2 labelling of light duty vehicles. That was to develop a method and to deliver information on the calculation of the true in use CO2 emissions of road vehicles, taking into account both the tailpipe vehicle emissions (downstream or tank-to-wheel) but also CO2 emissions originating from the production of the fuel/energy used by the vehicle (upstream or well-to-tank).

Sponsor: Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2013 to 07/2013

Technical support in the framework of the environmental study referred to in COM(2010)542

The European Commission Proposal COM (2010) 542 will form the basis of a new regulation introducing emission standards for L-category vehicles. This Communication Document introduces the need of an environmental study to be conducted in order to ‘confirm’ or, even possibly, review the emission standard requirements foreseen for the 2020/2021 emission step. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assist ACEM in providing technical input in the process of such an environmental study so that the planning, execution, and outcome of this environmental study offer reliable and unprejudiced conclusions related to a fair regulation of future L-category vehicles.

Sponsor: ACEM

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 11/2012 to 06/2013

TRansport ANalysis and Scenario evaluation Model for the UTilisation of Electricity-based vehicle technologies (TRANSMUTE)

The objective is to develop an integrated application with a built-in road transport model for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles, capable of evaluating different fleet structure scenarios in order to reach specific CO2 targets and estimate related costs, while emphasizing on electrification approaches.

Sponsor: General Secretariat for Research and Technology

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2012 to 08/2015

Technical support for the use of COPERT in the context of the review of the European evaporative emission test procedure

The main objective was to provide technical support to JRC/IET for the use of COPERT in the context of the review of the European evaporative emission test procedure. The work performed included: the modifications introduced to the COPERT model for estimating the benefits of a revised procedure, provision of assistance to JRC for defining the different scenarios, running of the model.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, IES

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2012 to 12/2012

Effects of ageing commercial biodiesel fuels on engine components

A measurement programme will be carried out to assess the effects of ageing commercial biodiesel fuels on engine components.

Sponsor: Toyota Motor Europe

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas / Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute

Duration: 05/2012 to 02/2013

Maintenance of the air pollutant emissions database and the air quality management system

The objective is to maintain and update the air pollutant emissions database and the air quality management system (AQMS) that have been developed in the framework of a previous contract. To this aim, the relevant activity data will be collected in order to create the 2011 inventory and to enable the temporal and spatial allocation of emissions in the web GIS application. Output of the AQMS will be validated on a daily basis against measurements from monitoring stations. Emission reduction scenarios for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 will be also created. Training of the DLI personnel on the use of the above tools is also foreseen.

Sponsor: Department of Labour Inspection, Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance, Cyprus

Contractor: AUTh/Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, EMISIA

Duration: 01/2012 to 12/2012

Transport data collection supporting the quantitative analysis of measures relating to transport and climate change (TRACCS)

The principal objective of this project is to supply DG CLIMA with a general update of the historical transport data for use in the various modelling tools used by the European Commission for policy assessment purposes. The economic conditions in Europe have changed considerably in recent years, and some of the assumptions implicit in these datasets (e.g. economic growth, turnover of stock, etc.) may no longer be valid and should also therefore be re-examined. The main requirement is collection of country-specific data on the various transport modes for each of the EU27 Member States, as well as for Norway, Switzerland and the EU candidate countries (Croatia, FYROM, Iceland and Turkey). Website: http://traccs.emisia.com/download.php

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, INFRAS, IVL

Duration: 12/2011 to 12/2013

Report: Final report

Inspection and Maintenance fine Particle Sensor (IMPS)

The aim of the project is developing a fine particle sensor suitable for use as a test probe for diesel-powered vehicles in inspection and maintenance facilities. It will incorporate a data interface with a software application to acquire, store and process collected information and output a result.

Sponsor: EUREKA Office, C/o General Secretariat for Research and Technology

Contractor: EMISIA, Pegasor Ltd

Duration: 11/2011 to 04/2014

Monitoring and assessment of sectorial implementation actions (notably related to transport, energy and agriculture)

This project aims to support the European Commission in the review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution and its related legal instruments on ambient air quality and national emission ceilings through modelling of emission baselines and scenarios for different policy options and their related impacts.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: IIASA, VITO, INERIS, EMISIA, ICCS, met.no, ALTERRA, RIVM, EMRC

Duration: 09/2011 to 09/2013

Development of a system for traffic, environmental and energy data from the road network of Thessaloniki (WISERIDE)

The objective is to develop an innovative product focusing on the road transport sector and more specifically on intelligent transport systems. To this aim, a software tool will be developed which will estimate pollutant emission levels and the energy consumption for the road network of Thessaloniki in real-time. The results will be integrated on geographical layers in order to be displayed in GPS navigation systems and in web-based applications.

Sponsor: General Secretariat for Research and Technology

Contractor: EMISIA, AUTh/Transport Engineering Laboratory, Radiotaxi Association "White Tower"

Duration: 08/2011 to 07/2014

Development of a method for the measurement and monitoring of CO2 emissions for N1 multi-stage vehicles

The goal of the project is to assess options and to develop a method to measure and monitor the CO2 emissions of N1 multi-stage vehicles (MSV).

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO

Duration: 06/2011 to 12/2011

European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation

The main task of the ETC/ACM is to support EU environmental policy and legislative frameworks in a flexible manner to allow for adequate response to emerging needs. Such support is brought through improving monitoring, reporting and assessments in which the DPSIR chain is analyzed in a balanced way. The ETC/ACM activities focus on the support of two main policy processes and frameworks: Climate change (CC Committee, EU Climate Action Programme and UNFCCC/Kyoto and its follow up), and Air pollution (Air Quality CAFE Directive; NEC Directive and CLRTAP and their follow up).

Sponsor: European Environment Agency

Contractor: RIVM, AEA, CHMI, EMISIA, IDAEA/CSIC, INERIS, NILU, Oko, PBL, UBA-Vienna

Duration: 01/2011 to 12/2013

Support for Preparation of reports under Article 9.1 (c and j) of Directive 98/70/EC and on the quality of petrol and diesel fuels

The main objective of the task 2 (permitted summer petrol vapour pressure) of this study was to investigate the implications of producing petrol to a lower vapour pressure. To this aim, (a) the technical, commercial, environmental and operational implications were identified, (b) the costs and benefits throughout the lifecycle of the fuel were assessed (c) the compatibility of lower summer vapour pressure petrol with the operation of the petrol vehicle fleet has been assessed, (d) the practical and technical obstacles to the supply, storage and use of petrol with lower vapour pressure have been assessed, (e) a comprehensive cost-benefit assessment of a lowering of the maximum summer vapour pressure for petrol has been carried out, and (f) recommendations as to whether there is a summer petrol vapour pressure lower than the present value that can be considered more optimal were provided.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh, AMEC

Duration: 12/2010 to 02/2012

Parameterisation of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of passenger cars and LDV for modelling purposes

The main objective of this study is to parameterize the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of passenger cars and light-duty vehicles and all possible fuels in relation to the main influencing factors, like vehicle weight, engine power, aerodynamics, etc. To this aim, the database on which the analyses will be performed will be selected, an appropriate methodology and calculation tool will be developed and validated and the parameterisation results will be made available for use in emission inventorying tools.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Environment and Sustainability

Contractor: EMISIA, TU Graz, INFRAS

Duration: 12/2009 to 10/2010

Report: Report

Parameterization of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of passenger cars and LDV for modelling purposes

The main objective of this study was to parameterize the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of passenger cars and light-duty vehicles and all possible fuels in relation to the main influencing factors, like vehicle weight, engine power, aerodynamics, etc. In-use fuel consumption was reported to be higher than type-approval one by 15-20%. Correlation functions of fuel consumption with key vehicle specifications, such as mass, rated power, engine capacity, aerodynamic resistance and rolling resistance were then provided. Models of various degree of complexity were developed to predict in-use fuel consumption using vehicle specifications and type-approval data. The results of the study were used to improve the fuel consumption functions of the models COPERT and HBEFA. The study also made suggestion on how the type-approval procedure can be improved so that fuel consumption values are more realistic. Finally, the methods developed may be used to predict whether type-approval reductions expected from future vehicle technologies may result to equal reductions in real-world fuel consumption.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, IES

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG, INFRAS

Duration: 12/2009 to 10/2010

Framework Contract for Expert Assistance in Transport and Environment

The main objectives of this framework contract are to develop and maintain transport and environment indicators and best practices; assess the environmental constraints and benefits of clean/low carbon transport technologies; provide regular updates on transport and environment indicators, including transport subsidies and fiscal instruments; assess the pressures associated with the demand for transport on the environment including energy efficiency and demand-side policies, choice of fuels, climate change mitigation, air pollution, noise and the costs, benefits and tradeoffs concerning environmental aspects, such as water and biodiversity, of these pathways.

Sponsor: European Environment Agency

Contractor: EMISIA, AEA, COWI, KTI, Acustica, Extrium

Duration: 12/2009 to 12/2011

Graphical User Interface for the European Transport Model TREMOVE

An evaluation of the current TREMOVE Graphical User Interface functionalities will be performed. Additional functionalities will be designed and integrated in the model and the model core, currently based on TREMOVE v.3.1, will be updated to v.3.3.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, APEnvEcon

Duration: 12/2009 to 06/2010

Framework Contract for Expert Assistance in Transport and Environment

The main objectives of this framework contract are to develop and maintain transport and environment indicators and best practices; assess the environmental constraints and benefits of clean/low carbon transport technologies; provide regular updates on transport and environment indicators, including transport subsidies and fiscal instruments; assess the pressures associated with the demand for transport on the environment including energy efficiency and demand-side policies, choice of fuels, climate change mitigation, air pollution, noise and the costs, benefits and tradeoffs concerning environmental aspects, such as water and biodiversity, of these pathways.

Sponsor: European Environment Agency

Contractor: AEA, COWI, EMISIA, KTI, Acustica, Extrium

Duration: 12/2009 to 12/2011

Uncertainty/Sensitivity analysis of the transport model TREMOVE

The aim of this project was to estimate the uncertainty of the TREMOVE output and its sensitivity to the input variables. For the analysis, United Kingdom was examined as a test case and TREMOVE v3.3.1 was used. The study identified 14 variables that were found to be most important for the uncertainty of the model output. It also identified linear associations between output and input variables in several instances. Elasticities between intermodal shifts and other choices (vehicle types, fuels, etc.) appeared limited. Choices to decrease model uncertainty include better estimates for key input variables and simplification of the model structure.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, LWA

Duration: 09/2009 to 03/2011

Air pollution consequences of postponing the implementation date of EURO VI standards for heavy duty vehicles

Appropriate scenarios were setup using version 3.1 of the TREMOVE model, to assess the consequences on emissions and costs of postponing the implementation date of EURO VI emission limit values for Heavy Duty Vehicles by two years, i.e. from 2013 to 2015.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2009 to 11/2009

Recalculation of PTW emissions in accordance with the ACEM scenario

Four scenarios requested by ACEM on future emission standards for mopeds and motorcycles were simulated. Scenario 1 assumes the introduction of Euro 4 (2012) and Euro 5 (2015) motorcycles. Scenario 2 in addition considers the introduction of Euro 4 mopeds in 2015. Finally, two scenarios were executed where all conventional motorcycles and mopeds are replaced with new ones in the year 2012. The simulations showed that significant reductions may be achieved with the scenarios proposed. However, stabilization of PTW contribution to the 2007 level can be only achieved with old vehicle replacement.

Sponsor: European Motorcycle Manufacturers Association (ACEM)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2009 to 06/2009

Scenarios on the future regulation of Power Two Wheelers

The main objectives were to perform simulations for four scenarios requested by ACEM on future emission standards for mopeds and motorcycles. Scenario 1 assumed the introduction of Euro 4 (2012) and Euro 5 (2015) motorcycles. Scenario 2 in addition considered the introduction of Euro 4 mopeds in 2015. Finally, two scenarios were executed where all conventional motorcycles and mopeds are replaced with new ones in the year 2012.

Sponsor: ACEM

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 05/2009 to 06/2009

Uncertainty estimates and guidance for road transport emission calculations

The main objectives of this project was to evaluate the uncertainty linked with the various input parameters of the COPERT 4 model, assess the uncertainty of road transport emissions in two test cases at national level and include these uncertainty estimates in the COPERT 4 model. Furthermore, this information has been used to prepare guidance on the assessment of uncertainty for the Tier 3 methods (COPERT 4) and to provide uncertainty estimates for the Tier 2 method, to be included in the road transport chapter of the Atmospheric Emissions Inventory Guidebook.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Environment and Sustainability

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2009 to 10/2009

Euro 6 light duty vehicle OBD

The main objectives of the project is to critically review and assess the technical feasibility of positive-ignition and compression-ignition OBD monitoring techniques and hardware availability to establish by end-2010 and collect driving data from EU and US vehicles in order to provide a database of in-field OBD failures and frequency of such OBD failures. Based on the assessment of technical feasibility, likely scenarios for Euro 6 OBD thresholds will be developed and an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various OBD threshold scenarios will be conducted.

Sponsor: European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2009 to 08/2011

Feasibility study for the development of evaporative emission factors from diesel vehicles and inclusion in the COPERT software

New emission factors for evaporative emissions from diesel vehicles have been developed based on the results of relevant mini-SHED tests. An emissions calculation tool based on the COPERT 4 methodology has been developed, which enables the calculation of evaporative emissions from the entire European vehicle fleet (ALL) and thus the assessment of the contribution of diesel vehicles to total evaporative emissions.

Sponsor: EVAL Europe N.V.

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 12/2008 to 02/2009

Update and further development of transport model TREMOVE

The aim of this project is to update and further improve the transport model TREMOVE with the latest available data (vehicle stock, fuel prices, taxation, mileages, v-km, p-km, t-km, …) and provide new baseline scenarios that would be in line with the involvement of TREMOVE in different projects (iTREN-2030 and EC4MACS).

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, TML, TRT, IFEU

Duration: 11/2008 to 01/2010

Development and application of a demonstrator for vehicle emissions calculation

In order to assess the environmental performance of vehicles equipped with the 'Clear Box', an emissions calculation tool based on the COPERT 4 software has been developed. Detailed trip and parking information in a high temporal resolution are used to calculate the pollutant and CO2 emissions and fuel consumption per vehicle and per trip. Emission results from vehicles equipped with PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement Systems) were utilised for the validation of the demonstrator.

Sponsor: Octo Telematics srl

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2008 to 03/2009

Application of TREMOVE to study the effects of CO2 regulations on technological improvements

The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the road transport stock, assuming different costs for the technology options foreseen to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars. Αn updated baseline of the TREMOVE model version 2.52 has been prepared in order to incorporate the latest fuel prices for the EU countries. The scenarios considered differed on the expected CO2 reductions from different technologies, the extent of penetration of new technologies and the corresponding additional costs to be applied on diesel and gasoline passenger cars for all countries.

Sponsor: German Aerospace Center (DLR)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2008 to 10/2008

Validation and Improvement of CORINAIR's Emission Factors for Road Transport using Real-World Emissions Measurements

Existing emission factors and methodologies included in COPERT will be reviewed and those in need of revision and/or validation will be identified. An experimental campaign will be set-up, in order to address the identified priorities in methodology and emission factor improvements. A calculation tool to collect and screen the measured data from the experimental campaign will then be developed. The calculation tool will include a methodology, which will be used to convert the collected data into useful emission factors and will be applied to develop relevant emission factors from a case-study.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Environment and Sustainability

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh, TU Graz

Duration: 09/2008 to 07/2009

Application of TREMOVE to study the effect of excise duties minima on road transport development

The aim of this exercise was to assess the impact of possible revision of the minimum levels of taxation for motor fuels to take into account their energy and carbon content. The effect on activity, emissions and road transport cost of applying 2 scenarios over the baseline development was calculated. The scenarios were determined by the European Commissions, were provided to the study team and were executed with TREMOVE version 2.52.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG TAXUD

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2008 to 07/2008

Development of a Graphical User Interface for the TREMOVE model

A Graphical User Interface was developed as a MS Windows software tool to simplify and automate the use of the TREMOVE model. The TREMOVE GUI provides the user with an interface to create scenarios with the TREMOVE model and execute them. It provides a link between the input and output data and means to filter and export them from the TREMOVE database to an easy-to-use MS Excel file. It also allows the user to change the input data in order to create a new TREMOVE baseline.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 12/2007 to 11/2008

European Database of Vehicle Stock for the Calculation and Forecast of Pollutant and GHG Emissions with TREMOVE and COPERT

The project aimed at collecting updated information for the fleet structure and activity in all EU28 members states, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey. Information was collected on the data required by these two models, related to coverage, vehicle types and technologies and activity related information. Data were collected from different national and international sources resulting in the development of a consistent dataset for each country, to be used in COPERT and TREMOVE. The results were presented in a consistent manner for all countries, including emission comparisons with the national submissions and the results of the GAINS model. The results of this study were also made available on the web to be used as a guide for official data submission.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, ICCS, Oekopol, Envicon, KTI, Renault

Duration: 01/2007 to 04/2008