Our projects

On going projects

VERA – Vehicle Emission Retrofit Activities

VERA will develop, optimise and demonstrate innovative tailpipe retrofit solutions that address particle (sub-23nm) and NOx emissions of road vehicles running on gasoline and natural gas and driving high mileages within the city (taxi, delivery van, bus), while particular considerations will be made for NH3 emissions. System adaptability will be ensured by a central development methodology for all the retrofit systems, allowing fast and accurate optimisation according to the requirements of each application, while the cost will be minimised using innovative washcoats and compact packaging. A variety of brake retrofit solutions will be developed, deployed and optimised for brake particle emissions of road vehicles, comprising an active filtration system capturing the generated particles and innovative brake discs and pads to reduce brake wear. The combination of the two solutions will aim at the maximum reduction of brake particles, while alternative production techniques will be applied to reduce the cost. Brake particles from metro applications will be also addressed with an active filtration system and properly machined pads, covering two types of braking technologies. The brake solutions of VERA combine unique advantages: they can all be used for first installation on new vehicles, the discs and pads can be manufactured for any vehicle as replacement parts, while the capturing system can be applied from road vehicles to metros. Further to the systems, exposure of workers and passengers in a metro station will be assessed with combined field measurements and modelling of particle dispersion inside stations and tunnels. Following the detailed evaluation of the systems, an impact assessment study will highlight the benefits of the proposed solutions against their cost. Both environmental and health impacts will be analysed, while possible incentive and regulatory schemes for retrofitting will be considered in the scenarios of the cost-benefit analysis. VERA tackles all the above challenges by:

  • Developing and optimising new innovative retrofit solutions for tailpipe emissions of road vehicles, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of existing retrofit systems, bringing together the strong background and expertise of the consortium partners on this topic and the outcomes of previous and ongoing relevant activities.
  • Optimising an existing and developing new innovative retrofit solutions for brake particles of road vehicles, targeting to maximum emissions reduction through their combination.
  • Implementing and optimising a retrofit solution for brake particles of metro vehicles, including systems for different braking technologies.

Sponsor: CINEA (European Climate, Infrastructure and Environment Executive Agency)

Contractor: TUG (AT), TNO (NL), Tallano Technologie (FR), Ricardo (UK), FEV (DE), AUTh (GR), IDIADA SA (ES), Monolithos (GR), IDIADA UK Ltd, RIJKSINSTITUUT VOOR VOLKSGEZONDHEID EN MILIEU (NL), ASSOCIATION EUROPEENNE DES FOURNISSEURS AUTOMOBILES (BE), DINEX ECOCAT OY (FI), BREMBO SPA (IT), ITT Italia srl, AUDI AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT (DE), FEV ECE Automotive SRL (RO), METRO DE MADRID SA (ES)

Duration: 09/2022 to 09/2025

LENS - L-vehicles Emissions and Noise mitigation Solutions

LENS is a project aiming at assisting enforcement authorities, cities and regulators to decrease the contribution of L-category vehicles (LVs: mopeds, motorcycles, tricycles and quadri-mobiles) to noise and air-pollution. This is achieved by developing and promoting interventions and best practices that can address the noise and pollutant emissions of current fleet vehicles and by making suggestions for regulations to improve the performance of future vehicles. Interventions for the current fleet range from vehicle measures (speed limiters, digital sealing) to infrastructure (traffic calming and restrictions), tampering detection and anti-tampering enforcement and smart apps that guide riders to adopt more environmentally and less noisy riding slides. Suggestions for regulations include the control of emissions under real driving conditions and the regulatory enforcement of anti-tampering measures. The expected impact of these measures will be demonstrated by simulations in three actual case studies in locations which are negatively impacted by the operation of LVs. An extensive test programme of noise and pollutant emissions on more than 150 LVs is proposed - including on-board, on-track and in-lab tests – to collect the necessary performance data. Portable sensor-based and mini-analyser measurement systems are being developed in the project to characterize gaseous and particulate pollutants, including nanoparticles down to 2.5 nm under actual operation conditions. A new technique based on the remote detection of gaseous emissions, nanoparticles and sound levels of singular vehicles on the road is being proposed with the aim to detect worst noise and emission LVs, including tampered ones. The technique will be deployed in 3 real-world campaigns with the intention to sample more than 3,000 LVs on the road. A smart app will be enhanced with project findings to assist riders adopt a more city-friendly riding style in terms of noise and emissions.

Sponsor: CINEA (European Climate, Infrastructure and Environment Executive Agency)

Contractor: EMISIA, IDIADA AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY SA, TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITAET GRAZ, IVL SVENSKA MILJOEINSTITUTET AB, RHEINISCH-WESTFAELISCHE TECHNISCHE HOCHSCHULE AACHEN, KATHOLIEKE UNIVERSITEIT LEUVEN, CESKA ZEMEDELSKA UNIVERZITA V PRAZE, NEDERLANDSE ORGANISATIE VOOR TOEGEPAST NATUURWETENSCHAPPELIJK ONDERZOEK TNO, IFP Energies Nouvelles, KTM Forschungs & Entwicklungs GmbH, BAYERISCHE MOTOREN WERKE AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT, PIAGGIO & C S.P.A., DUCATI MOTOR HOLDING SPA, HORIBA EUROPE GMBH, POLIS - PROMOTION OF OPERATIONAL LINKS WITH INTEGRATED SERVICES, ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONALE

Duration: 09/2022 to 08/2025

MobiSpaces - New data spaces for green mobility

Mobility in the urban and maritime domains hugely impacts the global economy, generating data at high rates from an increasing number of moving objects. Management of the complete lifecycle of such data implies that trustworthy and privacy-preserving infrastructures need to be put in place, so that reliable and secure data operations can be provided. Meanwhile, the mobility data exploitation has still a wide potential due to the emerging applications and the environmental footprint caused by mobility (e.g., carbon emissions, energy consumption). Motivated by these pressing needs, MobiSpaces delivers an end-to-end mobility-aware and mobility-optimized data governance platform with key differentiating factor that the outcomes of mobility analytics will be utilized to optimize the complete data path, in terms of efficient, reliable, secure, fair and trustworthy data processing. MobiSpaces promises the extraction of actionable insights from ubiquitous mobile sensor data and IoT devices in a decentralized way, offering intelligent transportation services, enforcing privacy constraints at the expected point of action. XAI techniques will be applied at the level of data management and machine learning, supporting the creation of comprehensive and interpretable prediction models, while all the research outcomes will be validated through five use cases: 1) intelligent public transportation services in urban environments, 2) intelligent infrastructure traffic sensing for smart cities, 3) vessel tracking for non-cooperative vessels, 4) decentralized processing onboard of vessels, and 5) enhanced nautical maps via crowdsourced bathymetry vessels data. These actions will be continuously adapted and monitored for their environmental sustainability, whereas MobiSpaces will create a widely accepted standard of data processing and analytics, alongside a data-rich ecosystem providing trustworthy and actionable data that is vital for enabling the growth of the EU digital economy.

Sponsor: European Commission (Horizon project)

Contractor: EMISIA, GFT ITALIA SRL (IT), ATOS SPAIN SA (ES), ROBERT BOSCH GMBH (DE), SIEMENS SRL (RO), INTRASOFT INTERNATIONAL SA (LU), FUJITSU TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS GMBH (DE), ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA INFORMATICA SPA (IT), FREQUENTIS AG (AT), AZIENDA MOBILITA E TRASPORTI SPA (IT), MARINTRAFIK OPEREISONS ANONYMI ETAIREIA PLIROFORIKIS (GR), OKYS LTD (BG), UBITECH LIMITED (CY), LEANXCALE SL (ES), UNPARALLEL INNOVATION LDA (PT), TRUST-IT SRL (IT), COMMPLA SRL (IT), GEODATASTYRELSEN (DK), DIGITAL SYSTEMS 4.0 (BG), NetU Consultants Ltd (CY), UNIVERSITY OF PIRAEUS RESEARCH CENTER (GR), UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES (BE), AIT AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GMBH (ΑΤ), AALBORG UNIVERSITET (DK), AALBORG UNIVERSITET (DK)

Duration: 09/2022 to 09/2025

Review of National Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Data 2022 under the NECD (National Emission Ceilings Directive 2016/2284)

Provide one sector expert for energy mobile combustion for the technical expert review team (ERT) who will participate in the desk and centralized review. Sector experts will contribute to the review report where requested. The sector experts will follow the 'Air emission inventory review guidelines - version 2022' and work in close co-operation with their assigned lead reviewer.

Sponsor: Umweltbundesamt GMBH

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 05/2022 to 08/2022

Euro 7 implementing regulation

This project will work on the improvement of the tests and methods applied to measure tailpipe emissions, with emphasis on real-world tests for both LDV and HDV to determine real driving emissions (RDE), at all the stages (original type approval (TA), conformity of production (COP), in-service conformity (ISC) and market surveillance (MaS). In the same context, the performance and the relevant requirements of the measuring equipment shall be evaluated. Apart from measuring emissions with the appropriate equipment, this study will further develop the On-Board Monitoring (OBM) of emissions, so that to ensure continuous compliance with the relevant limits. The outcome of these technical activities will be translated in Technical Annexes to be included in the regulation. All the annexes will be finally incorporated in the implementing regulation, the technical parts of which will be also drafted in this study.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW)

Contractor: TUG, TNO, Ricardo, FEV, VTT, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 03/2022 to 05/2023

Methods for energy consumption and emissions calculation for maritime and aviation fleets

This project focuses on evaluating potential methods for energy consumption and emissions calculation for maritime and aviation fleets inside the EU and propose an approach that could be combined with JRC’s DIONE tool. The calculation methods are analysed and compared based on many parameters such as the accuracy of the calculations, the availability of data, the ease of use, etc. and the most advantageous calculation method is proposed to be used later in the software tool to be developed in Task 4 of the project.

Sponsor: Joint Research Centre Ispra (JRC)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2022 to 01/2023

Development of Data Processing Software for Microscale Vehicle Emission Models

The objective of this project is to develop a data processing software that can automatically extract, process the PEMS data and correct the abnormalities of the PEMS data for the two microscale vehicle emission models chosen by EPD.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2022 to 01/2024

ETC/CM - European Topic Centre on Climate Change Mitigation

The ETC/CM is an integral part of the EEA structure often referred to as “Eionet”. Eionet is a partnership network of the EEA and its member and cooperating countries. It consists of the EEA itself, seven European Topic Centres (ETCs) and a network of around 900 experts from 38 countries in over 300 national environment agencies and other bodies dealing with environmental information. These are the National Focal Points (NFPs) and the National Reference Centres (NRCs). The Eionet partnership is crucial to the EEA in supporting the collection and organisation of data and the development and dissemination of information. The organisations and individuals in the network are supported by an extensive information technology infrastructure (referred to as e-Eionet).

Sponsor: European Environment Agency (EEA)

Contractor: VITO, Aether, CITEPA, EMISIA, NILU, UBA, Oeko-Recherche, CHMI, Oeko-Institut, TML, Exergia, Gauss, Klarfakt, T4L, RIVM

Duration: 01/2022 to 12/2022

Monitoring of other air pollutants

The overarching objective of this specific agreement is to provide a systematic assessment of monitoring of other air pollutants not covered under Directives 2004/107/EC and 2008/50/EC (with a focus on ultrafine particles, black carbon/ elemental carbon, ammonia and methane in ambient air). This translates to the following specific objectives: 1. To provide an overview of current scientific recommendations and good practice for monitoring of other air pollutants not covered by the EU Ambient Air Quality Directives; 2. To collate comprehensive information on the monitoring of ultrafine particles, black carbon/elemental carbon, ammonia and methane (plus other relevant air pollutants) in all EU Member States; 3. To assess the distance to meeting WHO good practice statements for measuring ultrafine particles, and for measuring black carbon/elemental carbon in ambient air in all Member States; 4. To provide recommendations on steps needed to meet current scientific recommendations in all Member States, including estimates of the costs this would imply and for whom.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: RIVM, IIASA, UMWELTBUNDESAMT GMBH

Duration: 01/2022 to 10/2022

Flanders non exhaust emissions

This study aims to fill some of the gaps in the knowledge about non-exhaust emissions. The focus is on the entire policy cycle, from policy preparation to enforcement options. The study aims to:

  • Create an inventory of available data from recent (European) studies and recently available measurement data from producers and research institutes (and own measurement data),
  • Fill-in knowledge gaps,
  • Prepare proposals for Flemish policy.

Sponsor: Flemish Government

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2022 to 10/2022

Certify CO2 savings from the use of efficient Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) systems

In an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from transport and improve energy security, the EU is committed to reducing fuel consumption by road vehicles. A series of options and flexibilities to further improve CO2 performance were granted to manufacturers including super (additional) – credits for ultra-low CO2 emitting vehicles. Included in the above flexibility, upon application by a supplier or a manufacturer, is the option that CO2 savings achieved using innovative technologies called “eco-innovations” can be accounted for against the manufacturer CO2 target. Based on the latest regulatory developments, from 1 January 2025 on, efficient Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) systems will be eligible technologies in the framework of the eco-innovation scheme. The current project aims at assisting the Commission in designing the suitable procedures related to the determination of CO2 savings from the use of efficient MAC systems fitted in passenger cars and vans, while reviewing and critically assessing the state-of-the-art technologies and improvements of such systems, as well as relevant developments/practices around the world. It is clarified that both cooling and heating functions of MAC systems will be covered (Article 11 of Regulation (EU) 2019/631 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new cars and vans).

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 12/2021 to 03/2023

Support to the development of the third Clean Air Outlook

The objective of this project is primarily to provide analysis in support of the Commission’s third Clean Air Outlook report. The analysis performed for this Outlook will also be used for the Zero Pollution Monitoring and Outlook Report planned for 2022 and for the preparation of the review of the NEC Directive, due by 2025. Involvement of the Member States experts to jointly review and validate key assumptions and parameters used in modelling will be of utmost importance and will be achieved through individual consultations with Member States expert teams.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, IIASA

Duration: 12/2021 to 12/2022

Further Development of the Microscale Vehicle Emission Model

Since 2016, Environmental Protection Department (EPD) has been developing microscale vehicle emission model to predict vehicular emissions at local hotspots in Hong Kong. The new model is expected to be in production in 2023. The remaining work and the objective of this project is to further develop the model so as to enhance its performance, accuracy and stability. Various improvement methodologies will be implemented and tested using PEMS data in this project.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 10/2021 to 10/2023

System Maintenance & Upgrade Services for the PEMS IT & PEMS Inventory Systems

To store and visualize the PEMS Data, EPD has in operation two web application systems which include: (i) PEMS IT System; and (ii) PEMS Inventory System. The objective of this project is to provide system maintenance service and upgrade service for the PEMS IT System and the PEMS Inventory System and their interlinks (the PEMS Software).

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2021 to 08/2022

PEMS Data Extraction

The objective of this project is to provide services for: 1) extracting data from PEMS Database, 2) selecting proper sets of QA/QC and data correction procedures, and 3) transforming the variables for the usage of EPD.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2021 to 08/2023

Development of statistical and projected fleet composition, activity and emissions data based on COPERT

Development of statistical and projected fleet composition, activity and emissions data based on the COPERT software for the: (i) baseline scenario and (ii) for three other scenarios. The baseline dataset is based on the latest PRIMES model data REF2020.

Sponsor: Joint Research Centre Ispra (JRC)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2021 to 01/2023

System Maintenance Service for the PEMS IT and PEMS Inventory Systems (IV)

To store and visualize the PEMS Data, EPD has in operations two web application systems which include:

  • PEMS IT System and
  • PEMS Inventory System.
The objective of this contract is to provide system maintenance service (Maintenance Service) for the above two PEMS application systems and their interlinks (PEMS Software).  

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2020 to 08/2022

Exploration of Mesoscale Vehicle Emission Factor Models

This project aimed to pick up the work of the previous Mesoscale project to continue the development of methodologies for mesoscale vehicle emission models using real-world second-by-second vehicle emission data measured by PEMS.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2020 to 06/2022

Development of Algorithms for Data Synchronization

Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) has been used by Environmental Protection Department (EPD) to measure vehicle emission in real world driving situation since 2008. A growing number of equipment are being used simultaneously during the measurement, and therefore the data synchronization is increasingly complicated. Moreover, new findings reveal that the time delay between equipment, which was regarded as a constant, could be changing considerably during the measurement. In addition, the emission concentration would be considerably distorted in the transmission from the tailpipe to the analysers. All these affect the accuracy of the data synchronization, and thereby the accuracy of the total vehicle emissions. This project aims at: i) developing algorithms for synchronizing data from different PEMS analysers for dynamic flow and ambient condition; and ii) developing algorithms to restore the distortion of the vehicle emission concentrations due to the transmission from the tailpipes to the analysers.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 11/2019 to 11/2022

New Mobility Patterns in European Cities

The objective of the project is to provide the EC DG MOVE with an extensive dataset covering the areas of passenger mobility, urban logistics, fleet composition, transport activity and traffic for the EU Member States and other European countries. The study aims to be a general update of the historical transport data for use in the various activity and emission projection tools in Europe, as a continuation of the previous relevant TRACCS project. In addition, the data collection will be extended to new mobility measurements (e.g. shared mobility, active mobility, use of alternative fueled vehicles) and logistics patterns, both at intra-urban and inter-urban level.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Mobility and Transport

Contractor: Stratec (BE), FIT (IT), TRT (IT), Panteia (NL), IFSTTAR (FR), Emisia (GR), GDCC (NL)

Duration: 10/2019 to 07/2022

Independent on-road RDE testing to ensure broad information and transparency for better market surveillance

The overarching aim of the European emission legislation for light duty vehicles (cars and light duty vans) is to reduce pollutant emissions and, hence, improve the air quality for European citizens. The Diesel-gate scandal revealed the important shortcomings of the classical approach of emission legislation based on laboratory tests only and type-approval checks dominantly based on witnessing. Independent tests performed and initiated by members of our consortium were at the verge of the Diesel-gate scandal and confirmed high emissions in real driving, and the effects on NO2 air-quality. As a result of Diesel-gate the European legislator speeded up the development of RDE legislation. RDE legislation, including the RDE4 act expected to be in force on the 1 January 2019, introduces on-road testing and procedures for in-service conformity (ISC) checks as part of the emission legislation. The ISC test are required in order to ensure that real driving emissions are also effectively limited during the normal life of the vehicle under normal conditions of use. RDE4 explicitly introduces the possibility of ISC tests being performed by independent laboratories – labs not being (commissioned by) the vehicle manufacturer or its granting type approval authority (GTAA). The independent laboratory needs to be RDE accredited and can be commissioned by any third party. The independency of the laboratories and the quality of their RDE testing should ensure a thorough follow-up by the GTAA, addressing the issues raised, which is acceptable to all stakeholders. It should not be acceptable for an GTAA to redo RDE tests in different circumstances to brush aside successive failed RDE tests.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW)

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG Graz, TNO, Ricardo, ICCT, FEV, VTT, DTI

Duration: 03/2019 to 09/2022

Provision of real driving emissions data

The primary objective of this contract is to further assist JRC and the EC in obtaining a representative picture of how the environmental performance of real vehicles evolves after the introduction of RDE. To this aim, data on real driving emissions from an as large as possible sample of vehicles is required. This dataset may complement and enrich the measurement database already under development at JRC. Measurements to feed in this dataset may originate both from pre-existing measured data or from new measurements to be collected on request. In this case, the measurement protocol should fully respect Regulation 2017/1151 requirements. A second objective is to collect and provide real world data over alternative measurement protocols, i.e. over non-legislative protocols. In such a measurement protocol, some of the boundary conditions of Regulation 2017/1151 should be exceeded in order to collect data under a wider operation regime. These data may be used to assess the effectiveness of RDE and to consider no legislative conditions in future revisions of the measurement protocol.

Sponsor: European Commission, JRC

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 06/2018 to 09/2022

Finished projects

Cost-Benefit analysis model for the upgrade of the vehicle fleet of EYATH S.A.

Development of a Cost-Benefit analysis model for the upgrade of the vehicle fleet of EYATH S.A. The study examined the costs and benefits for the upgrade of the vehicle fleet of the EYATH S.A. with new vehicles of the latest technology. The main objectives of the study were: (i) to assess the financial and environmental impacts from the upgrade of the vehicle fleet of EYATH S.A., (ii) to quantify the impacts of the investment to the company (financial impact) and to the society of Thessaloniki (environmental impact), (iii) to provide an order of magnitude estimate on whether introducing a new measure would result to higher benefits than costs or if the investment costs exceed the expected benefits, and (iv) to provide an optimal solution for future potential upgrades of the vehicle fleet of EYATH S.A.

Sponsor: EYATH S.A. (GR)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 12/2021 to 02/2022

Development of emission factors of vehicles operating within and around airports in Europe

This project is centralized to the study of the landside vehicle emissions inside the airports of Europe as well as in a perimeter defined around the airports. The work is based on the delivery of emission factors, which will be the base to calculate the total emissions of a specific fleet by the airport administration/consultants.

Sponsor: Eurocontrol SA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2021 to 10/2021

Innovation Voucher (O.P Region of Central Macedonia)

The overall action aims to promote innovation in small, micro and medium-sized enterprises of the Region of Central Macedonia through the cooperation of enterprises with research and technological institutions. In this project, the collaboration between EMISIA SA and the International Hellenic University aims to develop innovative solutions in the fields of estimating uncertainty of emission factors and predicting vehicle emissions at the microscale level.



The project is co-funded by Greece, the European Union, and the European Regional Development Fund.

Sponsor: O.P Region of Central Macedonia, Action “Innovation Vouchers for small, micro and medium-sized enterprises of the Region of Central Macedonia“, Framework “Operational Program Central Macedonia 2014-2020”

Contractor: EMISIA SA, International Hellenic University (IHU)

Duration: 04/2021 to 10/2021

Development of a tool for creating custom scenarios

Development of a custom tool, which mainly provides the evolution of the EU vehicle fleet and the resulting CO2 emissions and energy consumption, depending on adjustable parameters, such as new vehicle sales, powertrain categories, vehicle efficiency, energy vector, driving distance, driving pattern, fleet turnover, etc. The tool provides the ability to easily and effortlessly run scenarios based on the user needs. A web interface is developed, aiming at a user-friendly environment.

Sponsor: Aramco Overseas Company BV

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 03/2021 to 12/2021

Preparatory Action - Independent on-road RDE testing to ensure broad information and transparency for better market surveillance (Durability testing)

The focus of the work for this Preparatory Action was on testing vehicles which are outside the parameters currently regulated by either in-service conformity or market surveillance, i.e. vehicles more than five years old or which have been driven for more than 100 000 km. Such testing provided extremely useful information on the quality of tailpipe emission control systems and helped in providing necessary information for the development of the new legislative proposal on emissions. The testing included RDE tests and laboratory tests on older vehicles or those with high mileages, as well as measurement of all possible pollutants, including those not currently regulated and in all possible configurations. The study made an assessment based on the results of the testing and contributed to the broader understanding of durability of emission control systems.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW)

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG Graz, TNO, Ricardo, FEV, VTT, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 09/2020 to 12/2021

Update emission calculator tool for Valeo

GHG emissions assessment for Valeo products portfolio over lifetime from 2019 to 2030 was conducted. EMISIA updated the emission calculator tool that was developed for Valeo in 2017. TtW emissions were included and new regions and products were added.

Sponsor: Valeo Management Services

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2020 to 10/2020

Review study on the Recreational Craft Directive 2013/53/EU

General objective of the study is to collect information in order to draft the report required by Article 52 of the Directive 2013/53/EU. Specific objectives are:

  • To quantify the share of exhaust emissions produced by recreational marine engines in the EU comparing to exhaust emissions produced by boats in general as well as comparing to absolute number of transport exhaust emissions.
  • To find out if it is technically feasible and cost-beneficial to further reduce the emissions of pollutants from marine propulsion engines (nitrogen oxides NOx, hydrocarbons HC, particulate emissions PT and carbon monoxide CO). The cost efficiency of approaches and/or technologies and the need to agree globally harmonised values for the sector have to be taken into account.
  • To find out if other engine testing procedures than listed in the Directive 2013/53/EU would be more appropriate for the recreational marine propulsion engines, including hybrid installations as well as if these procedures would better contribute to reduction of pollutants emissions.
  • To list the possible options of further reduction of exhaust emissions from recreational marine propulsion engines.
  • To assess the possibility to set out requirements on evaporative emissions and fuel systems. To list possible options and accompany them by cost/benefit analysis.
  • To assess the adequacy and impact of the current specification of watercraft design categories (based on combination of resistance to wind force and to significant wave height) on manufacturers and end-users.
  • To assess the need to introduce further specifications, eventually to introduce further subdivision of the current design categories. Potential option to modify current specification of watercraft design categories shall be accompanied by cost/benefit analysis.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, Panteia

Duration: 09/2020 to 09/2021

Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR)

The main outcome of this study was a dataset, which includes - for road transport sector - the emission standards with their associated emissions factors and fleet penetration/distribution for key world regions, i.e., non-EU27 industrialized economies, China and India, other South East Asian countries, Africa, Middle East, and Latin America and the Caribbean.

Sponsor: Joint Research Centre Ispra (JRC)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 08/2020 to 03/2021

Fleet/Ground support equipment management optimization at airports targeting energy consumption reduction (EcoServe)

The project aims at developing an innovative system of sophisticated vehicle fleet tracking system for automated decision-making optimizing energy and fuel savings. The system will include the use of energy consumption analysis models, the implementation of an online geoinformation system (WebGIS), and the active involvement of the vehicle operators by using a mobile phone application developed specifically to collect usage data and feed them to a server (operating hours, routes, number of passengers served, fuel quantities, maintenance data, etc.). The system will automatically highlight the issues in the vehicle fleet by carefully monitoring all vehicles. It is possible that these vehicle fleet issues, which would not have been observed individually, can be solved or at least be improved when studying them as a whole (eg. when the fuel consumption of vehicles of the same type for the same use has a significant deviation in two different operating areas). The analysis of the recorded data will lead to rational proposals for fuel and energy saving measures, considering also the electricity consumption. The pilot operation and evaluation of this system will be implemented in a company which provides airport services, and particularly in a subsection of the fleet of Goldair Handling SA, which will act as a pilot user (it is essentially the first potential customer to apply the proposed system) which has been active in Greece in the area of ground handling of passengers and aircraft since 1999.

Sponsor: General Secretariat for Research and Technology

Contractor: EMISIA, KartECO

Duration: 05/2020 to 11/2021

Review of National Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Data 2020 under the NECD (Directive 2016/2284)

The general objective of this project is to support the European Commission and the European Environment Agency in carrying out the review of the national emission inventory data and adjustment applications submitted under the NECD. This review should be performed in accordance with article 10(3) and article 5(6) of the new NECD. The review aims to improve inventories by checking that transparency, consistency, comparability, completeness and accuracy of submitted data will be achieved.

Sponsor: Umweltbundesamt GMBH

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 04/2020 to 08/2020

Ψηφιακό Βήμα

Χρηματοδότησης επενδυτικών σχεδίων στη Δράση «Ψηφιακό Βήμα» του Ε.Π. «Ανταγωνιστικότητα, Επιχειρηματικότητα και Καινοτομία»

Η Δράση συγχρηματοδοτείται από το Ευρωπαϊκό Ταμείο Περιφερειακής Ανάπτυξης (ΕΤΠΑ) της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης και από εθνικούς πόρους.

 

Sponsor: Greece, the European Union, the European Regional Development Fund

Contractor: EMISIA SA

Duration: 04/2020 to 03/2022

Understanding remote sensing feasibility for motorcycles

Remote Sensing Detection (RSD) for automotive emissions is a technique used since long, but has now received increased attention as a method to detect emission trends, vehicle compliance with emission standards, and detection of ultra-emitters. The method of detection is based on the quantification of light attenuation from the exhaust of pass-by vehicles on actual operation. The technique offers many advantages, most importantly, the detection and analysis of thousands of individual plumes within a period of, say, only few days. On the downside, the analysis is only based on a momentary screenshot of each emission plume, while detection sensitivity and interference from other sources are additional issues. Motorcycles tend to produce less volume (and mass) of exhaust plume than larger vehicles. As a result, RSD may be biased towards motorcycles producing a large volume of exhaust plume, i.e. biased towards high power and acceleration events which lead to higher emissions than average. The relevance, feasibility and representativity of RSD for motorcycles needs therefore to be verified before any firm conclusions and adequate comparisons with larger vehicles can be made.

Sponsor: ACEM

Contractor: EMISIA, IVL, University of Leeds

Duration: 02/2020 to 12/2020

Development of a low cost real time emissions measurement system (ReTEMS-Real Time Emissions Measurement System)

The atmosphere of the urban landscape in the European Union is reported to be degraded mainly due to high concentrations of exhaust pollutants such as NO2, associated with road vehicles (cars, trucks). Coastal areas are also suffering by high SO2 concentration which is mostly associated with passing by ships, as they are the main source of SO2 emissions. The realistic quantification of the pollutants emissions is essential for the success of any future targets of the European Union to improve the atmospheric air quality. The recent increase of PEMS usage reveals an increasing demand for accurate emissions assessment studies; however these are limited due to the high costs associated with PEMS testing. Moreover, the new European legislation (post-EURO6) will also be targeting in non-conventional pollutants such as NH3, N2O, etc. EMISIA, following these upcoming regulatory changes and meeting its obligations for fleet emissions monitoring, will develop a Real Time Emission Measurement System (ReTEMS). The ReTEMS device will consist of commercially available cheap gas and particle detecting sensors, an exhaust gas preparation-sampling system and an electrical circuit for signal processing and recording. The project’s upcoming actions are bibliographic research for suitable sensors, design and implementation of electronic circuits and the sampling system, the assembly of the device and the completion of test operation in both laboratory conditions and on the real world in cars, trucks and ships. The results of the initial tests will be announced through publications in scientific journals and will be presented at scientific conferences. Last but not least the promotion of the device will take place in trade fairs. The novelty of the device is the design and construction of an original sampling system, which creates the right exhaust gas conditions to apply economic sensors in order to create a cost-effective portable pollutant measurement device. Its development and market availability will create the conditions for effective surveillance and control of vehicle emissions.

Sponsor: General Secretariat for Research and Technology

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 02/2020 to 08/2021

Exploration of Microscale Vehicle Emission Factor Model

The objective of this contract was to improve the performance of the two models MAPM, PΔP and to develop a new model that does not use various forms of power as the modelling variables to predict vehicular emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate (PM) with resolution at least higher than or equal to: i) 10-second temporal resolution or ii) 20-meter spatial resolution, whichever is the lower resolution.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, EARA LLC, TER

Duration: 01/2020 to 03/2022

Measuring the fuel consumption of light- and heavy-duty vehicles and monitoring their real-world fuel consumption

The current project proposal aims at assisting the EC in developing detailed procedures for monitoring and assessing real-world CO2 emissions for both LDV and HDV through the collection of real-world fuel and/or energy consumption data from OBFCM devices. Specifically, the scope of assignment comprises the following major components:

  • Define suitable accuracy requirements for OBFCM devices, critically reviewing the current accuracy requirements. The target is to improve the quality of the produced real-world monitoring data, in light of established CO2 regulations.
  • Elaborate possible approaches for on-board monitoring HDV payload, investigate the technical boundary conditions and achievable accuracies and draft regulatory requirements.
  • Develop standardization requirements for on-board data recording and retrieval, building on the standardization requirements for the type approval of OBFCM devices.
  • Assess the possible options for collecting real-world data from the vehicles, analyzing the environmental, economic, social and other relevant impacts.
  • Set and implement a sampling approach for collecting real-world fuel consumption related data, providing information on the activities and procedures involved and how additional recorded information can be used to interpret real-world fuel consumption data.
 

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG, TNO, Ricardo, FEV, VTT, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 01/2020 to 12/2021

Testing Retrofit Technologies

The current project aims at the evaluation of retrofit technologies for light-duty vehicles, i.e. passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The ultimate target is to assess the potential of retrofitting light-duty vehicles in order to reduce their emissions and render them compliant with the Euro 6d emission limit values. This, in turn, will allow their circulation in areas with restricted access for air quality purposes. The assessment will be made on experimental level, including as well a cost benefit analysis. The scope of the testing activity will cover retrofit technologies for Euro 5 vehicles, while the assessment will consider Euro 4 to 6 (not of the latest emission classes Euro 6d-temp and Euro 6d) vehicles, as well.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW)

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG, TNO, Ricardo, FEV, VTT, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 12/2019 to 03/2021

Study on post-Euro 6/VI emission standards in Europe - PART B

Part A of the study focused on the testing environment and conditions over a revised type approval framework together with the collection of new experimental information to justify the need for additional coverage in operation conditions and pollutants. Part A is on-going and is expected to produce its final results by autumn 2020. In parallel, the EC needs to assess the impacts and the associated costs of each change in the existing framework of automotive emissions control. The first step in this process is the justification of the need to bring changes to the regulatory context. The second step is the justify which of the available options lead to the highest cost-benefit ratio, given the boundary conditions that are often limiting certain options.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW)

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG Graz, TNO, Ricardo, FEV, VTT, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 12/2019 to 11/2021

Support preparation of legislation on trailers certification

The aim of the present call for tender is to develop a detailed certification methodology for that purpose and the necessary and connecting IT tool(s), such as an extension of VECTO with a new module, a separate IT tool or both. To achieve this, this project will: - Define a classification system for O3 and O4 category vehicles and rigid lorry bodyworks for their effect on the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of the towing vehicle/base vehicle, - Define a certification methodology including the development of test requirements for determining the necessary inputs for the IT tool(s) used for CO2 emissions/fuel consumption calculations and the definition of the algorithms, standard values and generic equations to be used for the CO2 emissions / fuel consumption calculations (Task 2: sub-task C), - Develop and validate the required IT tool, - Provide legislative support throughout the project to achieve the definition of a draft regulation.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, IDIADA, TUG, TML

Duration: 12/2019 to 12/2020

Support for the in-service verification of CO2 emissions of new light- and heavy-duty vehicles

The current project proposal aims at assisting the Commission (DG CLIMA) in developing a detailed procedure for the in-service verification of CO2 emissions of new LDV and HDV. The ultimate target of such a procedure shall be the correspondence of the certified CO2 emissions with the actual performance of vehicles in-service. In that way, the evaluation against the specific CO2 emission targets will consider the actual CO2 emissions of the vehicles in-service, further to the certified ones. Specifically, the scope of assignment comprises the following major components:

  • Initial mapping of the relevant existing regulations that contain useful provisions for in-service verification of CO2 emissions, for both LDV and HDV.
  • Setting the guideline principles and criteria to be considered in the procedure for the in-service verification of CO2 emissions for LDV.
  • Elaboration of possible approaches in order to verify the actual road-load of LDV and the corresponding CO2 emissions of WLTP.
  • Development of a methodology for the detection of strategies aiming at artificially improving CO2 emissions of LDV during the type-approval test.
  • Development of a methodology for correcting the average specific CO2 emissions, in case that deviations are found between certified and in-service values or if strategies aiming at artificially improving CO2 emissions during the type-approval test are detected.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG, TNO, Ricardo, FEV, VTT, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 12/2019 to 12/2021

Study on sound level limits of M- and N-category vehicles

Since the control of sound emissions from road vehicles is important, limits in the related legislation need to represent the current (state of the art) sound levels, taking into account the evolution of approved vehicle types. According to Article 11 of Regulation (EU) No 540/2014, the EC shall perform a study on the sound level limits of M- and N- category vehicles, complying with the latest requirements. Hence, the overall objective of this project is to obtain a technical basis that will help the EC to propose for sound level limits for the next phases of the Regulation (EU) No 540/2014 in the coming years. In this context, the project will investigate the technical progress on sound emission levels of M- and N-category vehicles and will explore the possibility to propose new (improved) limit values through a feedback gathering and literature review procedure, actual vehicle sound tests, including noise source ranking, and a cost-benefit analysis.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, HSDAC, FEV, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 11/2019 to 05/2021

Study on future fuel demand

The main objective of this contract is to create a country specific energy baseline scenario combining both OMV’s EU level fuel demand forecast and fleet composition data until 2035 and Emisia’s detailed country specific fleet distribution including detailed vehicle technologies and age distribution used in Emisia’s emission project model SIBYL. This country specific energy baseline scenario will then be compared with SIBYL’s built default energy baseline scenario. Finally, the project will investigate the sensitivity of the energy baseline with relation to some specific parameters such as annual mileage, trip length distribution of electrified vehicles and the introduction rate of battery electric vehicles.

Sponsor: OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 11/2019 to 12/2019

System Maintenance Service for the PEMS IT System and PEMS Inventory System (III)

To store and visualize the vehicle emission data obtained by using Portable Emission Measurement System (the PEMS Data), Environmental Protection Department (EPD) has upgraded the IT system for storage and handling of the PEMS Data (PEMS IT System) and IT system for PEMS equipment and operation (PEMS Inventory System). This Contract called for service to provide system maintenance service for the PEMS IT and PEMS Inventory Systems.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 08/2019 to 08/2020

Inclusion of All Correction Factors and Start and Idling Emissions in the Pilot Framework

The objective in this project was to further develop the Pilot Framework which uses inputs from EMFAC-HK to estimate hot running emissions and emission rates (g/km) by road link. The further development included all the remaining correction factors in EMFAC-HK, start and idling emissions as in EMFAC-HK but in link level except those that are irrelevant to Hong Kong.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 05/2019 to 01/2022

Mediterranean Interregional Electromobility Networks for intermodal and interurban low carbon transport systems

EnerNETMob aimed to test and improve parallel “Sustainable Electromobility Plans” according to common standards & low carbon policies. The partners developed an “Interregional Electromobility Network” crossing cities of the MED area and beyond for promoting sharing mobility and land-sea intermodality using electric transport systems. The pilot actions will allow longer trips, test how to overcome medium-trip limitations and may coordinate future investments on electric transport in MED area.

Sponsor: European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)

Contractor: Bee Group

Duration: 05/2019 to 09/2019

Study on post-EURO 6/VI emission standards in Europe - PART A

The scope of the study is to review the current regulatory framework for vehicle emission standards in Europe and identify areas, particularly in terms of testing protocols, that improvements may be brought. This is, first, in order to assess the standards’ effectiveness in delivering the emission reductions expected by the regulations over the lifetime of the vehicle. Second, this will lead to directions and recommendations related to emission standard improvements. The latter should not be necessarily seen as an effort to decrease emission limits but, rather, as an effort to deliver new regulatory approaches and tests that will be transparent, easier to implement, technology-neutral and effective in terms of their impact to the environment.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

Contractor: LAT/AUTh, EMISIA, TNO, TUG, FEV, Ricardo, VTT

Duration: 04/2019 to 12/2020

ETC/ATNI – European Topic Centre on Air pollution, Transport, Noise and Industrial Pollution

The role of the ETC/ATNI is to support EEA’s work on the areas of air pollution, transport, noise and industrial pollution and involves three main aspects:

  1. Data and information: This involves securing the provision of timely, targeted, relevant and reliable information to policy-making agents, other stakeholders and the public. The data reporting and information activities include harmonization of data reporting, quality assessment of the data, data and information compilation, and facilitating the development of technical systems for exchange of data and information;
  2. Assessments: The ETCs have an important role in supporting EU legislation implementation. This involves assembling the best available expertise to handle and analyse data and information. The goal is to provide relevant assessments on status and trends, evaluation of policy effectiveness and of the progress towards policy targets. These activities include as well the production of indicators to communicate the findings to various users;
  3. Networking and collaboration: This third aspect involves networking and competence-building both within and outside the Eionet. Collaboration is key to achieve results in the work of the ETC and needs to cover the full geographical area of the EEA Member Countries.

Sponsor: European Environment Agency (EEA)

Contractor: NILU, EMISIA, Aether, CHMI, INERIS, UBA Vienna, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 4sfera

Duration: 01/2019 to 12/2021

ETC/CME – European Topic Centre on Climate change Mitigation and Energy

The role of the ETC/CME is to support and inform policy developments and implementation in the areas of climate change mitigation and energy by means of data, information/indicators and assessments. The main future policy-relevant priorities in EEA’s strategic area on climate change mitigation and energy, are:

  • Support to the collection and compilation of data and information on climate change mitigation (and energy) officially reported under the MMR;
  • Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities on the information related to climate change mitigation, renewable and energy efficiency officially reported by Member States under the Monitoring Mechanism Regulation (MMR);
  • Supporting implementation of the Effort Sharing Decision, including the first step of the annual review of GHG inventories;
  • Strengthening EEA and Member State capacity on land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) reporting and accounting, in particular through increased links with land use accounting and the Copernicus Land Use Services;
  • Assisting the European Commission and Member States with future reporting foreseen under the Energy Union Governance, and supporting the establishment of the monitoring and reporting framework for future reporting on relevant climate and energy issues under the Energy Union Governance;
  • Practical support and relevant capacity-building expertise to Member States in support of annual and biennial reporting activities under the MMR and the Energy Union;
  • Supporting relevant Committees and working groups under the MMR and the Energy Union;
  • Monitoring progress and developments of emissions and allowances under the Emissions Trading System;
  • Further developing the monitoring and reporting framework for reporting under the FQD;
  • Further developing the monitoring and reporting framework for reporting on ODS and F-gases, in the context of implementing the Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol;
  • Contributing to and ensuring the continuing policy-relevance of EEA’s annual assessments of trends, projections and progress towards targets relative to climate change mitigation and energy in the EU, in light of ongoing policy developments at international and EU levels;
  • Assessing progress in renewable energy and energy efficiency in perspective of the transition to a low-carbon European energy system, and analysing quantitative benefits on decarbonisation;
  • Strengthening EEA and Member States capacity on policy evaluation in the area of energy climate change mitigation, including assessment of interactions and cross-benefits between policies;
  • Conducting additional assessments looking at environmental impacts caused by the energy sector (i.e. on GHG emissions, air quality, noise, biodiversity, landscape fragmentation, etc.) as well as foreseen changes arising from technological and societal shifts within the sector.

Sponsor: European Environment Agency (EEA)

Contractor: VITO, EMISIA, Aether, CITEPA, CHMI, NILU, Öko-Institut, Öko-Recherche, PBL, RIVM, UBA-Vienna

Duration: 01/2019 to 12/2021

System Upgrade of the PEMS IT System and PEMS Inventory System

To store and visualize the vehicle emission data obtained from Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS data), Environmental Protection Department (EPD) has developed the IT system for the storage and handling of PEMS data (PEMS IT System) and IT system for handling PEMS equipment and operation (PEMS Inventory System). This Contract calls for the Services to upgrade the PEMS IT and PEMS Inventory Systems.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 11/2018 to 11/2019

Technical progress of Conformity of Production for replacement silencing system as a separate technical unit

The scope of the study was to investigate the technical and financial feasibility of CoP checking procedures for replacement silencing systems as separate technical units for M1 and N1 vehicles and identify whether proposing improved CoP requirements leads to the achievement of improved sound emissions performance of those vehicle categories. Costs and benefits of new CoP checking procedures for replacement silencing systems were also estimated.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW)

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, HSDAC

Duration: 10/2018 to 03/2019

MILE21 – «More Information Less Emissions - Empowering consumers for a greener 21st century»

The objectives of the project were: i. Assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions for vehicles with low fuel consumption and emissions, ii. Collect data to monitor gap between type approval and real-world figures. To achieve the above objectives, the following key actions were envisaged: i. Development of a central website for consumer information, ii. Gather existing vehicle emissions data and perform new measurements, iii. Develop a methodology to calculate real-world emissions, iv. Integrate methodology into the website, v. Disseminate results to consumer organizations and related groups.

Sponsor: European Commission, LIFE 2017 programme, Climate Action

Contractor: AUTh, EMISIA, TNO, ICCT, Altroconsumo, DECO, OCU

Duration: 09/2018 to 12/2021

Technical support for the review obligations under Regulation (EU) 2016/1628 (NRMM)

The scope of the study study is to collect and analyse information, and draw conclusions on: i. technological and technical solutions for retrofit systems for NRMM, ii. possible ways forward for laying down harmonised measures at EU level for such retrofit systems, iii. financial incentive schemes which EU member States could introduce to promote installation of retrofit systems.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

Contractor: EMISIA, Dr. Karl-Heinz Zierock, TNO

Duration: 09/2018 to 04/2019

EU-China Climate Expert Dialogue on Climate Policy and Long-term Greenhouse Emission Scenarios

The agreed objectives of the project are to develop a COPERT Urumqi city pilot project for the reduction of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions and to support the national emissions inventory by upgrading to the latest COPERT 5 model version.

Sponsor: Policy Support Facility of the EU Partnership Instrument

Contractor: EMISIA, XinZi Consulting, Energy Research Institute China

Duration: 08/2018 to 12/2018

System Maintenance Service for the PEMS IT System and PEMS Inventory System (II)

To store and visualize the vehicle emission data obtained by using Portable Emission Measurement System (the PEMS Data), Environmental Protection Department (EPD) has upgraded the IT system for storage and handling of the PEMS Data (PEMS IT System) and IT system for PEMS equipment and operation (PEMS Inventory System). This Contract called for service to provide system maintenance service for the PEMS IT and PEMS Inventory Systems.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 07/2018 to 08/2019

Emission and fuel consumption tests

The principal objectives of this contract are:

  • To evaluate the emissions performance of three modern vehicles (petrol MPI, petrol GDI and Diesel) in chassis dyno testing.
  • To evaluate the emissions of the same vehicles during real-world driving with on-road testing (RDE tests).
  • To analyze the results using the CLEAR and EMROAD methods as well as the latest method as defined in the final text of RDE 4th package. The raw (second-by-second) results will be also provided, in g or #/km for the urban, rural and motorway phases, as well as for the total trip.
  • To properly present the above in a final report.

Sponsor: Transport & Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh

Second phase of review of national air pollution emission inventory data

The general objective of this project is to support the European Commission and the European Environment Agency in carrying-out the review of the national emission inventory data and adjustment applications submitted under NECD in the year 2018. This review should be performed in accordance with article 10(3) and article 5(6) of the new NECD. The aim of inventory improvements by checking transparency, consistency, comparability, completeness and accuracy of submitted data will be achieved. Thus, the review will contribute to establishing accurate, reliable and verified emission inventories for all Member States. The results of the review will inform compliance checking of the current applicable 2010 NECD ceilings, as well as inform future compliance checking of the national emission reduction commitments set in the new NECD. Further the results of the review will inform compliance checking of Member States’ basic obligations of the POPs protocol and heavy metals protocol under the LRTAP Convention and, with respect to mercury, also inform the review of mercury emissions that the Commission is required to do under article 13(3) of the new NECD. Another general objective of this project is to find a common approach to prioritizing and monitoring inventory improvements under the NECD with those of other organizations such as the LRTAP Convention and UNFCCC.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, UBA Vienna, Aether, CITEPA, DCE, RIVM, Ricardo Energy & Environment, SYKE, TNO, VITO, individual consultants

Duration: 02/2018 to 11/2018

Study to prepare the adaptation to technical progress of EU requirements on silencing systems containing acoustically absorbing fibrous materials for vehicles of categories M1, M2, M3, N1, N2 and N3

The scope of the study was to investigate the technical and financial feasibility of silencing systems containing acoustically absorbing fibrous materials for M and N vehicles and identify whether fitting such silencing systems to these vehicle categories and proposing improved testing conditions leads to the achievement of improved sound emissions performance. Costs and benefits of new technologies on silencing systems with fibrous materials were also estimated.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW)

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, HSDAC, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 02/2018 to 11/2018

Development of an application for the reduction of fuel consumption from road transport (iSave)

The European Union has set strict targets for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and 2050. The Framework for Climate and Energy Policies for 2030 requires a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from transport relative to 2008. According to the White Paper on Transport the 2050 target is a 60% reduction compared to 1990. These objectives have been fully specified in the Greek Roadmap for National Energy Planning with a significant reduction in fuel consumption in 2050 by approximately 25% compared to the current levels. In this direction, EMISIA will design and implement a mobile app that will suggest to drivers targeted routing and advice during the journey to improve their driving behavior targeting a fuel consumption reduction. EMISIA will develop an innovative methodology for calculating fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) designed specifically for each vehicle type which will provide the computational background of the software. The application will be addressed to individual drivers and to companies operating captive fleets and will be available through known application stores (Google play, Apple store). Promoting the application to the public will be based both on common practices and on a rewarding system evaluating the driver’s performance.

Sponsor: EYDE-ETAK, action "Research-Create-Innovate", EPANEK 2014-2020

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2018 to 05/2020

Development and demonstrative operation of a small scale combined heat and power unit for the utilization of biomass residues (BIO2CHP)

 
The purpose of the current proposal is the development of a stand-alone energy production unit, which can utilize raw residual biomass for the small-scale (20-100 kWel) combined production of heat and power, on-site. EMISIA is collaborating with Hephaestus and Alpha Estate, to finalize all aspects of the product design and its production and commercialization at scale. The result will consist of a 20 kWel unit which will operate independently, controlled by an "intelligent brain", and will be placed inside a standard cargo container for easy transport and installation. It is expected that the unit will be able of reducing energy costs up to 100% and waste management costs up to 88%, increasing profitability and leading to payback periods of less than 3 years. The units will be initially introduced in the market of wineries in the Mediterranean region, and at a later stage to other agro-food sector industries, across Europe and the World.  

The project is co-funded by Greece, the European Union and the European Regional Development Fund

   

Sponsor: EYDE-ETAK, action "Research-Create-Innovate", EPANEK 2014-2020

Contractor: EMISIA, Hephaestus, Alpha Estate

Duration: 01/2018 to 07/2021

Development of Pilot Mesoscale Vehicle Emission Factor Models

The work envisaged in this study aimed to develop pilot mesoscale vehicle emission factor models by using a set of real-world second-by-second vehicle emission data measured by portable emission measurement systems (PEMS data).

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG, Air and Risk Associates LLC

Duration: 12/2017 to 06/2020

Update of emission factors for motorcycles and mopeds

ERMES partners developed an updated set of emission factors for all L-category vehicles to be used as a basis for the different emission models. To do so, a project was initiated involving the partners JRC, EMISIA/LAT, MK/INFRAS, TNO, TUG, HSDA. ACEM supported the project financially and, when applicable/possible, through the provision of expertise and logistical support. New tests have been performed at the Joint Research Center (JRC), Graz University of Technology (TUG) and Fachhochschule Biel (FHB) laboratories. The data of the new tests, together with the data from tests performed in the framework of the Effect Study of the Environmental Step Euro 5 for L-category Vehicles (Ntziachristos et al., 2017) and from the tests performed in the framework of a national Netherlands study (Eijk et al., 2017), were used to develop an updated set of emission factors for Euro 3 mopeds, as well as a new set of emission factors for Euro 4 mopeds.

Sponsor: European Association of Motorcycle Manufacturers (ACEM)

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG Graz, TNO, INFRAS, HSDAC, JRC, ERMES Group, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 11/2017 to 12/2018

Development of Vehicle Emission Visualization Framework

The work envisaged in this study aims to: (1) develop a vehicle emission visualization framework which uses inputs including zero-mile emission factors and deterioration rates of hot running from an emission factor model like EMFAC-HK, vehicle fleet distribution, traffic data and any other data, (2) use this framework to estimate hot running emissions and emission rates (g/km) by road link, similar to the ones in Comprehensive Transport Study (CTS) and (3) display the results by road link on a map.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 11/2017 to 01/2019

Electrified L-category Vehicles Integrated into Transport and Electricity Networks - ELVITEN

ELVITEN aims to boost the usage of all categories of EL-Vs (bicycles, scooters, tricycles and quadricycles) in urban environment and, ultimately, to achieve a mind-shift among users by providing them with a better EL-V experience. This will be achieved by designing and offering replicable usage schemes, consisting of support services, ICT tools and policies. The project has three principal objectives: First, it seeks to make users more familiar and facilitate them to use EL-Vs instead of ICE vehicles for their private transport and for light urban deliveries. Second, it attempts to collect rich information sets made of real usage data, traces from dedicated ICT tools, and users’ opinions after real trips. Third, it will generate detailed guidelines and business models for service providers, Planning Authorities and manufacturers in order to make EL-Vs more attractive and more integrated in the transport and electricity networks.

Sponsor: European Commission - Innovation and Networks Executive Agency (INEA), under H2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation

Contractor: ICCS, AAU, AKKA, E-Trikala SA, AUTh, ATOS SA, CdB, CdG, RomaC, Duferco Energia SpA, ICOOR, Promálaga, ERTICO-ITS Europe, FIA, HUBJECT GmbH, KYBURZ, SEAbility Ltd, S3T, EMISIA, TB, Univ. of Leeds

Duration: 11/2017 to 10/2020

EU fuel system assessment regarding E20/25 future fuel application

The objective of the study is to investigate the overall sensitivity of future (Euro 6c technology) vehicles and the fuel logistics' system towards mid-blend oxygenate (“E20/25”) petrol.  The work is related to technology potential, environmental effect and costs of introducing mid-blend ethanol to the EU fuel market. It will assess the level of preparedness (compatibility) of the EU fuel system to accept E20/E25 petrol and the intermittent use of these fuels (as it stands now for CEN/TC 19) with E5 and E10 (both in terms of vehicles and fueling stations). It will measure and consider the scale of the changes that would need to be put in place, and the costs involved both at an aggregate level and with a breakdown through the fuel chain.

Sponsor: Nederlands Normalisatie-instituut (ΝΕΝ)

Contractor: EMISIA, Hellenic Naval Academy

Duration: 09/2017 to 10/2018

Analyzing Vehicle Emission Data collected by Portable Emission Measuring Systems

The project aims to carry out an in-depth analysis of PEMS data on typical issues arising from the latest worldwide trends on studying vehicle emission issues and/or vehicle emission model development and any other ad hoc projects initiated by the Government Representative. The project addresses the following 3 topics for which the appropriate data analysis will be carried out: (1) light Goods Vehicles, Euro 4–6, with GVW>3.5t (LGV6) analysis, (2) investigation of vehicles with suspected defeat devices and (3) heavy Goods Vehicles with GVW>15t (HGV8) analysis. The general outline of each task includes four phases: (1) methodology development, (2) calculation and evaluation, (3) report and (4) publication.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Queensland

Duration: 07/2017 to 07/2018

System Maintenance and Supporting Service for the PEMS IT System and PEMS Inventory System

The work envisaged in this study mainly aims at the following objectives: (1) the maintenance of the PEMS IT System and PEMS Inventory System and (2) the update of the Systems on new analysers, data correction methodology modifications and new data visualization.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 07/2017 to 07/2018

Vapor pressure derogation requests

The purpose of this project was to provide the EFTA Surveillance Authority with an assessment of the Norwegian Government’s request for an exemption from the vapor pressure requirements for low ambient summer temperatures pursuant to Article 3(4) and 3(5) of Directive 98/70/EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels. The overall objectives of this assessment were to evaluate the validity of the assumptions and methods employed by the Norwegian Government in its request. Certain conditions for these requests were set out in Directive 2009/30/EC and in a Guidance Note prepared by the European Commission. This was an assessment of information submitted by the Norwegian Government to date (June 2017). It was updated with a review of any further information submitted in support of the derogation request. This assessment has been undertaken according to a methodology and format agreed between EMISIA and the EFTA Surveillance Authority at project inception. It was focused on the second criterion set out in the EC’s Guidance Note assessing compliance with EU air quality and pollution legislation.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment and Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2017 to 07/2017

Technical support for the development of the WLTP Phase 2 and for RDE

An experimental measurement campaign to compare the thermal loads of the Standard Road Cycle (SRC) vs. WLTP, accompanied with a modelling study will be designed and carried out. All available data and knowledge on the deterioration of current and future pollution control devices will be collected. An analysis of the durability of EGR systems will be carried out. By analyzing this info, a revised accelerated bench durability procedure shall be proposed. Further, analysis for the evaluation methods and boundaries for RDE will be provided, by setting up a database of PEMS data from various stakeholders with appropriate easy to use structure, by assessing various methods for evaluating the PEMS data with the objective of proposing a single method, and by assess the percentage of real driving that is not currently accounted for in the RDE procedures as these are defined in RDE1 to RDE3.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 05/2017 to 07/2018

Test campaign on saving from eco-innovation components

This study provided sufficient evidence for the evaluation of the validity of the type-approval values of 3 high efficiency alternators, as well as the appropriateness of the testing methodologies defined in the corresponding European Commission Implementing Decisions. Specifically, we: (1) tested 3 high efficiency alternators in accordance with the approved testing methodologies defined in the corresponding EC Implementing Decisions and (2) prepared a detailed technical report (including raw measured data, and test results for each component tested. The reports included a brief qualitative analysis of the testing methodology and its appropriateness for determining CO2 emissions savings.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, ICF Consulting Ltd, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 02/2017 to 04/2017

Comprehensive review, including capacity-building, of member states’ emissions inventories under the directive on national emissions for certain atmospheric pollutants

The primary objective of this project was to perform a comprehensive technical review of Member States NECD inventories of the years 2005, 2010 and 2015 as reported in February 2017 (according to the new NECD) to ensure that the Commission has accurate, reliable and verified information on annual NECD emissions to determine compliance with the NEC Directive targets. A secondary objective was to strengthen Member States’ capacity in managing NECD inventories efficiently and in delivering high quality reports to the European Commission. The carefully selected team provided a blend of national expertise and included some of the most experienced inventory experts that EU Member States have to offer. Our proposed approach helped to continue to build capacity in the EU for the NECD and CLRTAP inventory management and reporting. The review also seeked to harmonize approaches in monitoring inventories reported under the NECD with other organizations with similar interests such as the LRTAP Convention and the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism (MMR)/United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, UBA Vienna, Aether, CITEPA, DCE, SYKE, TNO, VITO, Ricardo, RIVM

Duration: 01/2017 to 02/2018

Development of Pilot Microscale Vehicle Emission Factor Models

The study aims to develop pilot microscale vehicle emission factor models, using a set of real-world second-by-second vehicle emission data measured using PEMS. The project team will formulate conceptual and analytical methodologies for the prediction emission rates and proceed with the development, testing and validation of the corresponding pilot emission factor models based on PEMS data from real-world driving measurements.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Technology Graz, Energy Air and Risk Associates LLC

Duration: 01/2017 to 07/2018

Integrated Assessment Modelling services to support the development of a Clean Air Outlook summarising progress towards achievement of the EU's air quality and emissions objectives

The overall objective of the project was to provide relevant input to the inaugural Clean Air Forum and the forthcoming reviews under the revised NECD. Specific tasks related to an update of the analytical framework to reflect the latest developments since the TSAP report #16. In particular, the analytical framework included: the new PRIMES 2016 REFERENCE scenario, the Climate and Energy Policy as finally proposed by the Commission, the recently adopted source control measures, recent improvements and recalculations of reported historic emissions by Member States. Special focus needed to be put on issues that are particularly relevant for implementation, including measures to address pollution from specific sectors, as well as on the economic stimulus to the overall economy from the implementation of these measures.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: IIASA, EMISIA, EMRC, UBA Vienna, RIVM

Duration: 12/2016 to 10/2017

Quantifying the impact of Intelligent Transport Systems on the fuel consumption of light-duty vehicles on the road network

The overall objective of the study is to provide European Commission with a matrix of reasons why system wide deployment of so-called eco-ITS may deliver different levels of GHG benefits from tests of deployment on single vehicles.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTH, UPM

Duration: 11/2016 to 03/2017

Impacts of ethanol and fuel ethers on the well-to-wheels CO2 emissions and fuel evaporation emissions

The principal objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the permeation data generated by Kautex-Textron with a view to include these in COPERT 5, (2) to assess the ethanol/benzene azeotropic effect and its impact on benzene emissions from the European vehicle fleet, using the SIBYL model and (3) to analyse the “downstream CO2 emissions saving” potential of ETBE occurring at fuel formulation level during refinery operation, as a result of the biofuels technical specifications.

Sponsor: European Fuel Oxygenates Association (EFOA)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 10/2016 to 12/2017

System Enhancement and Post Processing

The study aims to carry out the migration of PEMS data from the existing to the new database, perform workflow and metadata enhancements of the PEMS Inventory System and provide additional visualisation for the Online Portal in the form of various charts and tables (time-dependent, emission rates, trends, etc.) for a more intuitive and straightforward post-processing of the PEMS database. In addition, the integrated and enhanced PEMS system will ensure a smooth interconnection between the PEMS Inventory system, the Online Portal and the underlying Oracle database.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 10/2016 to 06/2017

Study on Euro 5 sound level limits of L-category vehicles

The scope of the study was to explore and propose new sound level limits at a Euro 5 step of L-category vehicles, taking into account the evolution of sound levels of approved vehicle types, the citizens’ needs, and the technical and economic feasibility in the medium term range. The new sound limits to be proposed should be accompanied by an appropriate timeframe for their application.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW)

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, RICARDO, HSDAC

Duration: 09/2016 to 10/2017

Analyzing Vehicle Emission Data collected by Portable Emission Measuring Systems (PEMS)

The work in this study aimed to carry out an in-depth analysis of PEMS data on typical issues arising from the latest worldwide trends on studying vehicle emission issues and vehicle emission model development. The focus of this analysis was to investigate the operation of the SCR retrofit and evaluate its overall performance, to investigate the effectiveness of the LPG catalyst replacement initiative, to study the impact of road grade on emissions, to examine the potential and analyze the perspectives of implementing the Euro 6 data processing method in the city of Hong Kong and to evaluate the hybrid buses operation and performance. Furthermore, several observations on the data and the results were made, critical conclusions were drawn, and practical recommendations were proposed by the project team.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Queensland

Duration: 07/2016 to 06/2017

Analysing Vehicle Emission Data collected by Portable Emission Measuring Systems

The work in this study aims to carry out an in-depth analysis of PEMS data on typical issues arising from the latest worldwide trends on studying vehicle emission issues and vehicle emission model development. The focus of this analysis will be to investigate the operation of the SCR retrofit and evaluate its overall performance, to investigate the effectiveness of the LPG catalyst replacement initiative, to study the impact of road grade on emissions, to examine the potential and analyse the perspectives of implementing the Euro 6 data processing method in the city of Hong Kong and to evaluate the hybrid buses operation and performance. Furthermore, several observations on the data and the results will be made, critical conclusions will be drawn, and practical recommendations will be proposed by the project team.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 07/2016 to 06/2017

Database Implementation and System Development of the On-line Management Portal

The work envisaged in this study aims to set up the PEMS database in Oracle database 12c according to the new database design, as well as conduct System Analysis and Design and implement a web application for performing data processing and data analysis. The new system is envisioned to utilize all PEMS-related procedures in the form of this web application, called the online management portal (or Online Portal), i.e. to act as a single platform serving all data input/output and processing, interconnect all required modules such as the data uploader and time alignment and have the new database at its core.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2016 to 05/2017

Update of the CO2 Manufacturer Monitoring Tool

To reduce CO2 emissions in the road transport sector, the European Parliament and the Council adopted Regulation (EC) No 443/2009, which introduced mandatory CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars. In order to evaluate the progress of manufacturers towards their targets, the European Environment Agency collects and quality-checks data on CO2 emissions from passenger cars registered in all EU Member States since 2010. The analysis of this dataset showed that dieselization is one of the main drivers for the emissions reductions of the large manufacturers. However, there were a few other strategies (e.g. downsizing, hybridization, etc.) followed by the different manufacturers for meeting their targets. A further analysis of the above data would be useful for TME for benchmarking competitors’ strategies.

Sponsor: Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 04/2016 to 07/2016

Services and tools for the calculation and monitoring of vehicle emissions

This project included: (1) support on emission monitoring: Support on mission and emission monitoring for upgrading emission and freight models. This included updates and revisions of the emission functions from the COPERT model (v11.3) and relevant loading and gradient corrections for light commercial vehicles, previously delivered to IVECO in an MS Excel spreadsheet. The results from this activity were incorporated into the traffic and emissions simulation platform developed in the framework of the “ICT Emissions” project, (2) validation of results: The results from this activity were incorporated into the traffic and emissions simulation platform developed in the framework of the “ICT Emissions” project and (3) delivery of the SIBYL model: One license of SIBYL v4.0 – officially released in July 2015 – were delivered to IVECO. The license was not expirable for the particular software version. The license also covered any versions with software updates (e.g. v4.1, v4.2, etc.). It did not cover subsequent versions with major methodological updates (e.g. v5.0).

Sponsor: IVECO SpA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 03/2016 to 04/2016

Euro 5 Effect study for L-category vehicles

The objective of this study was to provide the European Commission with the set of environmental requirements for the Euro 5 stage for L-category vehicles, as mandated by Regulation (EU) No 168/2013. An experimental programme, feasibility assessments and cost-benefit analyses on the measures within the Euro 5 environmental step (test Types I-VIII, excluding test Type VI), as well as on in-service conformity, off-cycle emissions and particulate number emissions limit have been performed. Based on the outcomes of the study, the Commission will make the appropriate legislative proposals for Euro 5, and for the beyond Euro 5 elements into future type-approval legislation.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW)

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh, TNO, HSDA

Duration: 10/2015 to 05/2017

Design of a new database and data analysis of vehicle measurement

This study aims at the recommendation of improvements in the database that is currently used, the analysis of the handling of the measurement data as well as the proposition of a new database design with improved characteristics. The project team will allow tractability of the raw information and future expansion of the new database, conduct data analysis of measurement data and incorporate them into the new database design, incorporate all the recommendations related to database of document in Appendix I of the invitation to quotation into the database design and finally provide documentation on all the work, including quality assurance and quality control procedures.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, Cluster Technology

Duration: 09/2015 to 02/2016

Life GreenYourMove (GYM)

The main objectives of this project are the development and the promotion of a co-modal journey planning platform to minimize GHG emission in Europe. The project team will first review the current methodologies used to calculate GHG emissions from transport, current policies for promotion of co-modality, then create the GYM database, develop the case-specific co-modal emission calculation models and finally create the platform. Monitoring of the environmental and socio-economic impact of the project will follow along with public presence (website, phone application, workshops, webinars, conferences, networking etc.)         

Sponsor: European Commission, Executive Agency for small and medium-sized enterprises

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Thessaly, AVMAP, CHAPS, INPROP, TRAINOSE

Duration: 09/2015 to 08/2019

Study on enhanced sound requirements for mopeds, quads and replacement silencers of L-category vehicles

The objective of this study was to perform due diligence on noise control regulations from power two wheelers proposed at UN level (Regulations Nos 9, 63 and 92), before considering their accession into the EU type approval system. Particular emphasis was given on consideration of market surveillance and enforcement practices of the particular legislation. The study also identified whether or not UN Regulations Nos 9, 63 and 92 contained any flaws in the test procedures or robustness of testing and proposed cost beneficial improvements. The outcome of this work was expected to promote regulatory enforcement and the protection of the environment as well as to ensure international harmonization of technical sound provisions through a rationalized and flexible regulatory framework.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW)

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh, TNO, TÜV NORD, HSDAC

Duration: 08/2015 to 08/2016

Exchanging experience between the EU and China on the use of the COPERT model for transport for better National Climate Communication

The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve understanding of the contribution of transport to greenhouse gas emissions in China through use of EU experience and implementation of the COPERT model, (2) promote cooperation in this area between EU and China experts and allow easier exchanges between EU and China policy makers on their respective transport data and policies to address the climate (and wider) impacts of transport and (3) to support the process of developing policies to reduce transport climate and air pollution impact in China.

Sponsor: EU-China Policy Dialogue Support Facility II

Contractor: EMISIA, Energy Research Institute (China), European Union Delegation in China

Duration: 06/2015 to 06/2016

Impact of fleet renewal strategies on NOx and PM emissions from light duty vehicles within the context of the upcoming RDE legislation

The objectives of this study are to (1) formulate alternative fleet renewal scenarios for light duty and heavy duty vehicles in SIBYL with projections up to 2040 and (2) properly justify the results in a short report and a presentation.

Sponsor: ACEA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 05/2015 to 06/2015

Update and extension of the CO2 Manufacturer Monitoring Tool

The principal objectives of this contract were: (1) to update the MMT tool with the latest reported data submitted by the EU MS for the year 2014 for the six OEMs (Volkswagen, FIAT, Ford, BMW, Lexus, Toyota) that are currently included in the tool, (2) to extend the current tool by including three more OEMs: Peugeot, Renault, Opel and (3) to provide software support (by e-mail consultation) and maintenance (debugging and new releases) up to a maximum of three working days.

Sponsor: Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 04/2015 to 07/2015

Comparison TREMOD – COPERT

With the aim to compare TREMOD and COPERT the following steps are envisaged: (1) description of the features and expected developments for the two models, (2) description of the activity data used in the two models and (3) calculations with the two models for five test cases and assessment of results.

Sponsor: Bundesamt für Strassenwesen, Germany

Contractor: EMISIA, INFRAS, IFEU

Duration: 04/2015 to 04/2016

Assessment of options for monitoring heavy duty vehicles’ CO2 emissions and their costs

The European Commission intends to propose HDV CO2 certification, monitoring and reporting legislation in 2016. As regards monitoring and reporting, it started working on an Impact Assessment to fully assess and compare the identified monitoring and reporting options. To this aim the project objectives are to (1) re-assess the TNO report’s options by carrying out an analysis of the feasibility, robustness, effectiveness, representativeness and pros and cons of the options identified by TNO et al. (2015) and any other relevant monitoring options identified in this study, (2) assess options’ costs for the main stakeholders and (3) further assistance of the Commission in assessing data monitoring and management needs and costs at EU level. The first two objectives of the project will inform the Impact Assessment to be developed by the Commission services, underpinning legislation on monitoring and reporting of HDV CO2.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Clima

Contractor: EMISIA, CE Delft, TU Graz

Duration: 04/2015 to 08/2015

Impact of fuels and ICT on CO2 emissions from road traffic

Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA (TME) uses the SIBYL model for projection of emissions from road transport and requested for assessing the impact of alternative fuel pathways as well as from the uptake of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) measures on CO2 emissions from road traffic. This project aimed at using SIBYL projections to assess, on top of vehicle technology measures that could be used to reduce CO2 emissions, how much fuel related measures and the contribution of information and communication technologies (ICT) could assist in this direction. The principal objectives of the project were to: (1) formulate a proper baseline scenario in SIBYL with projections up to 2030, (2) enable the assessment of upstream CO2 emissions reduction potential from alternative fuel pathways, (3) enable the assessment of additional CO2 emissions reduction potential from ICT measures and (4) to properly justify the above in a final report and a presentation.

Sponsor: Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 03/2015 to 07/2015

Use of COPERT for estimating evaporative emissions from fuel ethers

This study provides to the European Fuel Oxygenates Association our comparative estimation of evaporative emissions from different fuels containing ethanol and ETBE. To this aim the main parameters of fuel ethers having an effect on evaporative emissions were investigated and modeled in COPERT, the expected evaporative VOC emissions for each of the scenarios considered were estimated and finally recommendations on the relative advantages of fuel ethers over ethanol blends were provided.

Sponsor: European Fuel Oxygenates Association (EFOA)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2015 to 06/2015

Quality Assurance of the Portable Emission Measuring Systems (PEMS)

The aim of this project is to understand and review current methods, tools, and procedures for PEMS data handling in Hong Kong, recommend improvements in the process which is currently applied, collect PEMS data to confirm quality using specially developed detection algorithm(s) and finally discuss and propose future PEMS data collection strategy.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, University of Queensland, City University of Hong Kong

Duration: 01/2015 to 10/2015

Preparation of the legal and technical background for proposing a future voluntary EU low emission standard for low emitting combustion engine driven cars (EULES)

The European Commission is considering the introduction of a voluntary emission standard for passenger cars (EULES) that will deliver real-world emission levels below the most stringent current emission limits. These emission levels will have to be verified by measuring the vehicle according to the measurement protocol foreseen in the framework of the Real Drive Emissions (RDE) regulations. This project aims at developing a first understanding on the potential of EULES as well as developing the technical and legal ground for its implementation. It consists of two major objectives: (1) assess the market response to such a standard, and (2) verify and demonstrate whether state-of-the-art Euro 6 cars can reach RDE levels which are below the Euro 6 emission limit values, by further optimization of their emission control systems.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, IIASA, ICCT, AVL, Open Evidence

Duration: 12/2014 to 05/2016

Emissions by the transport sector – Rail and Inland Waterways

The main objective is to support Eurostat in identifying and evaluating suitable data and methods for assessing the impact of railway and inland waterways transport on GHG emissions. To this aim, the main requirements of the project are: (1) assessment of the policy needs for statistical information on CO2 emissions by the rail and inland waterways transport sectors, (2) study and evaluation of methods and data used for the estimation of CO2 emissions by the rail and inland waterways transport sectors, (3) recommendation of suitable methods to be used by Eurostat, (4) feasibility study of extending Eurostat’s rail and inland waterways transport statistics system to accommodate the additional data needed for emission estimation and (5) extension of the published statistics for emissions by the rail and inland waterways transport sectors.

Sponsor: Eurostat

Contractor: EMISIA, Infras, City University Hong Kong

Duration: 12/2014 to 06/2015

Determination of a NO2 limit and its introduction in the legislation on type-approval of vehicles with respect to emissions for light-duty (Euro 6) and heavy-duty (Euro 6)’

This proposal outlined a study aiming at introducing a NO2 limit for both Euro 6 LDV and EURO 6 HDV. It addressed the link between vehicle emissions and NO2 air quality objectives, in urban areas. The topic was addressed in a broad manner, such that all steps of the road map for implementation of a final legislative proposal were addressed: (1) background and justification of NO2 limits, (2) different policy options for reduction of NO2 emissions for LDV and HDV, (3) technical and legislative options, (4) costs/benefits of several NO2 reduction levels for LDV and HDV individually, (5) costs to car owners and total societal costs, (6) benefits regarding improvements in urban air quality at hot spots and value of environmental and health benefits in general, (7) governmental and industrial stakeholders’ consultation, (8) synergy with other EU goals.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry

Contractor: EMISIA, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNA, TU Graz, LAT/AUTh, FVT mBH, Heinrich Steven Josef, Vienna University of Technology, Ricardo

Duration: 10/2014 to 10/2016

Literature Review of European Vehicle Emission Model

The objectives of the study are to (1) assess the future requirements for vehicle emission modelling by EPD, which includes an examination of input data availability in Hong Kong, (2) conduct a detailed review of the existing vehicle emission models and new methodologies in Europe, and (3) recommend the best approach for the development of the new generation vehicle emission model specifically for Hong Kong, based on the European situation.

Sponsor: Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department

Contractor: EMISIA, Infras, City University Hong Kong, University of Queensland

Duration: 03/2014 to 06/2015

Modeling the contribution of EU emission control instruments (for fixed, mobile and diffuse sources) to future pollution reduction objectives

The aim of the project is to provide supplementary analyses of the emission reduction scenarios developed with the GAINS model for the air quality policy package, by determining to the extent possible the contribution to emission reductions that a set of EU legislative instruments (1) will deliver in the period up to 2030, following currently adopted legislation, and (2) would additionally deliver in 2025 and 2030, in addition to the CLE baseline, as part of the set of measures needed to meet the emission reductions objectives set by the proposed air quality policy package.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, IIASA, EMRC

Duration: 02/2014 to 02/2015

Simulation of light duty vehicles

The principal objective of this contract was to carry out vehicle simulation work on behalf of DEKRA (contractor to the German Federal Highway Research Agency - BASt) using AVL’s CRUISE model. To this aim, the model was calibrated with selected results of the emissions tests conducted by DEKRA, and the calibrated model was reviewed and further elaborated by using test results of additional vehicles tested.

Sponsor: DEKRA Automobil GmbH

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2014 to 05/2014

Simulation and testing of light commercial vehicles for the correlation of CO2 emissions values measured on NEDC and WLTP

The main objective is to provide a technical analysis of how a representative range of N1 vehicles and technologies perform on the existing (NEDC) and the new (WLTP) type-approval procedure to enable a robust comparison of the emission values over the two tests. To this aim, approximately 8 individual vehicles will be simulated with different technology packages to model current technology variations and technology developments expected in the future. For the calibration and validation of the vehicle simulation model two representative vehicles will be tested over specific driving cycles.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG

Duration: 01/2014 to 05/2014

Evaluations of Member State requests for exemptions from the vapor pressure requirements for petrol pursuant to Article 3(4) and (5) of Directive 2009/30/EC relating to the quality of petrol

The main purpose for the service contract, as set out in the tender specifications, was to provide consultancy services to DG Climate Action related to the assessment of environmental impact of the vapor pressure derogation requests submitted by EU Member States pursuant to the Fuel Quality Directive. The main requirements of the project were as follows: (1) to check the completeness of the notification submitted by Member States requesting an exemption from the summer petrol vapor pressure requirements, (2) to assess the appropriateness and completeness of the methods employed in each of the Member State’s arguments for a waiver and (3) to provide recommendations on the appropriateness of each waiver request.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment & Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 12/2013 to 06/2015

‘Best Available Techniques’ for mobile sources in support of a Guidance Document to the Gothenburg Protocol of the LRTAP Convention

The main objective is the identification and evaluation of ‘Best Available Techniques’ (BAT) to control and reduce emissions from mobile sources. The project will provide the technical background in order to update the Guidance Document supporting the implementation of the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol of the UNECE LRTAP Convention. Main expected project achievements: (1) major advances in engine/exhaust control techniques, (2) extend scope of pollutants (e.g. PM control), (3) extend range of mobile sources covered (e.g. sea going ships, aircrafts) and (4) offer ‘best’ options from a range of proven (technical and non-technical) measures to reduce pollutant emissions from mobile sources.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, IIASA (AT)

Duration: 11/2013 to 12/2014

Development of a tool for assessing the fleet-level impacts of new road transport technologies, with emphasis in electromobility (DIONE)

The principal objective of this project was to provide a tool for assessing the impact of new technologies linked with electromobility. The tool was able to assess the impacts of technological changes in the vehicle fleets and fuels in Europe, in Member States and in individual regions. The main requirements of the contract were as follows: - the development of such a model, as well as model performance validation and correction, - the model was modular and expandable, including at least the following modules: emission inventory, energy use, technology cost/benefit, - the model run from 1990 until 2050 for the whole EU28 and where data were available also for Croatia, Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, FYROM and Turkey, addressing technological impacts at a European, national and regional level, - it provided the possibility to easily build various baselines, - the model was able of simulating at least the technological impact on CO2 and other pollutant emissions, energy and fuel consumption, and cost/benefit implications, - the model methodology and results were transparent to all users.

Sponsor: Joint Research Centre Ispra (JRC)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2013 to 03/2015

Inventory Improvement Program 2013 – Review of data and methods to calculate GHG emissions from alternative fuel transport

The overall aim of the Improvement Program was to provide research and development projects to improve and develop the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). The specific aims of this project were to: (1) identify source(s) of data that provide numbers of AFVs on UK roads, and their associated emissions, (2) identify the potential effect of AFVs on transport emissions levels, and therefore suggest an emissions level at which these figures could or should be publicly reported and (3) review how other EU MS collate and use data on this issue for potential application to the UK inventory.

Sponsor: UK Department of Energy & Climate Change

Contractor: EMISIA, Aether

Duration: 09/2013 to 12/2013

Simulation and testing of light duty vehicles with a view to ensuring the correlation of CO2 emission values measured on NEDC and WLTP

The main objective is to provide a technical analysis of how a representative range of M1 vehicles and technologies perform on the existing (NEDC) and the new (WLTP) type-approval procedure to enable a robust comparison of the emission values over the two tests. To this aim, approximately 20 individual vehicles will be simulated with different technology packages to model current technology variations and technology developments expected in the future. For the calibration and validation of the vehicle simulation model a number of vehicles will be tested over specific driving cycles.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 09/2013 to 12/2014

Study on the technological neutrality of light-duty vehicle CO2 emissions

The principal objective of this contract was to provide technical input to AECC in terms of a designing a revised approach for CO2 labelling of light duty vehicles. That was to develop a method and to deliver information on the calculation of the true in use CO2 emissions of road vehicles, taking into account both the tailpipe vehicle emissions (downstream or tank-to-wheel) but also CO2 emissions originating from the production of the fuel/energy used by the vehicle (upstream or well-to-tank).

Sponsor: Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2013 to 07/2013

Technical support in the framework of the environmental study referred to in COM(2010)542

The European Commission Proposal COM (2010) 542 will form the basis of a new regulation introducing emission standards for L-category vehicles. This Communication Document introduces the need of an environmental study to be conducted in order to ‘confirm’ or, even possibly, review the emission standard requirements foreseen for the 2020/2021 emission step. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assist ACEM in providing technical input in the process of such an environmental study so that the planning, execution, and outcome of this environmental study offer reliable and unprejudiced conclusions related to a fair regulation of future L-category vehicles.

Sponsor: ACEM

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 11/2012 to 06/2013

TRansport ANalysis and Scenario evaluation Model for the UTilisation of Electricity-based vehicle technologies (TRANSMUTE)

The objective is to develop an integrated application with a built-in road transport model for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles, capable of evaluating different fleet structure scenarios in order to reach specific CO2 targets and estimate related costs, while emphasizing on electrification approaches.

Sponsor: General Secretariat for Research and Technology

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2012 to 08/2015

Technical support for the use of COPERT in the context of the review of the European evaporative emission test procedure

The main objective was to provide technical support to JRC/IET for the use of COPERT in the context of the review of the European evaporative emission test procedure. The work performed included: the modifications introduced to the COPERT model for estimating the benefits of a revised procedure, provision of assistance to JRC for defining the different scenarios, running of the model.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, IES

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2012 to 12/2012

Effects of ageing commercial biodiesel fuels on engine components

A measurement programme will be carried out to assess the effects of ageing commercial biodiesel fuels on engine components.

Sponsor: Toyota Motor Europe

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas / Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute

Duration: 05/2012 to 02/2013

Maintenance of the air pollutant emissions database and the air quality management system

The objective is to maintain and update the air pollutant emissions database and the air quality management system (AQMS) that have been developed in the framework of a previous contract. To this aim, the relevant activity data will be collected in order to create the 2011 inventory and to enable the temporal and spatial allocation of emissions in the web GIS application. Output of the AQMS will be validated on a daily basis against measurements from monitoring stations. Emission reduction scenarios for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 will be also created. Training of the DLI personnel on the use of the above tools is also foreseen.

Sponsor: Department of Labour Inspection, Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance, Cyprus

Contractor: AUTh/Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, EMISIA

Duration: 01/2012 to 12/2012

Transport data collection supporting the quantitative analysis of measures relating to transport and climate change (TRACCS)

The principal objective of this project was to supply DG CLIMA with a general update of the historical transport data for use in the various modelling tools used by the European Commission for policy assessment purposes. The economic conditions in Europe have changed considerably in recent years, and some of the assumptions implicit in these datasets (e.g. economic growth, turnover of stock, etc.) may no longer be valid and should also therefore be re-examined. The main requirement was collection of country-specific data on the various transport modes for each of the EU27 Member States, as well as for Norway, Switzerland and the EU candidate countries (Croatia, FYROM, Iceland and Turkey). Website: http://traccs.emisia.com/download.php

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action (CLIMA)

Contractor: EMISIA, INFRAS, IVL, Paul Boulter

Duration: 12/2011 to 12/2013

Report: Final report

Inspection and Maintenance fine Particle Sensor (IMPS)

The aim of the project is developing a fine particle sensor suitable for use as a test probe for diesel-powered vehicles in inspection and maintenance facilities. It will incorporate a data interface with a software application to acquire, store and process collected information and output a result.

Sponsor: EUREKA Office, C/o General Secretariat for Research and Technology

Contractor: EMISIA, Pegasor Ltd

Duration: 11/2011 to 04/2014

Monitoring and assessment of sectorial implementation actions (notably related to transport, energy and agriculture)

This project aims to support the European Commission in the review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution and its related legal instruments on ambient air quality and national emission ceilings through modelling of emission baselines and scenarios for different policy options and their related impacts.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: IIASA, VITO, INERIS, EMISIA, ICCS, met.no, ALTERRA, RIVM, EMRC

Duration: 09/2011 to 09/2013

Development of a system for traffic, environmental and energy data from the road network of Thessaloniki (WISERIDE)

The objective is to develop an innovative product focusing on the road transport sector and more specifically on intelligent transport systems. To this aim, a software tool will be developed which will estimate pollutant emission levels and the energy consumption for the road network of Thessaloniki in real-time. The results will be integrated on geographical layers in order to be displayed in GPS navigation systems and in web-based applications.

Sponsor: General Secretariat for Research and Technology

Contractor: EMISIA, AUTh/Transport Engineering Laboratory, Radiotaxi Association "White Tower"

Duration: 08/2011 to 07/2014

Development of a method for the measurement and monitoring of CO2 emissions for N1 multi-stage vehicles

The goal of the project is to assess options and to develop a method to measure and monitor the CO2 emissions of N1 multi-stage vehicles (MSV).

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry

Contractor: EMISIA, TNO

Duration: 06/2011 to 12/2011

European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation

The main task of the ETC/ACM is to support EU environmental policy and legislative frameworks in a flexible manner to allow for adequate response to emerging needs. Such support is brought through improving monitoring, reporting and assessments in which the DPSIR chain is analyzed in a balanced way. The ETC/ACM activities focus on the support of two main policy processes and frameworks: Climate change (CC Committee, EU Climate Action Programme and UNFCCC/Kyoto and its follow up), and Air pollution (Air Quality CAFE Directive; NEC Directive and CLRTAP and their follow up).

Sponsor: European Environment Agency

Contractor: RIVM, AEA, CHMI, EMISIA, IDAEA/CSIC, INERIS, NILU, Oko, PBL, UBA-Vienna

Duration: 01/2011 to 12/2013

Support for Preparation of reports under Article 9.1 (c and j) of Directive 98/70/EC and on the quality of petrol and diesel fuels

The main objective of the task 2 (permitted summer petrol vapour pressure) of this study was to investigate the implications of producing petrol to a lower vapour pressure. To this aim, (1) the technical, commercial, environmental and operational implications were identified, (2) the costs and benefits throughout the lifecycle of the fuel were assessed (3) the compatibility of lower summer vapour pressure petrol with the operation of the petrol vehicle fleet has been assessed, (4) the practical and technical obstacles to the supply, storage and use of petrol with lower vapour pressure have been assessed, (5) a comprehensive cost-benefit assessment of a lowering of the maximum summer vapour pressure for petrol has been carried out, and (6) recommendations as to whether there is a summer petrol vapour pressure lower than the present value that can be considered more optimal were provided.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Climate Action

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh, AMEC

Duration: 12/2010 to 02/2012

Parameterization of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of passenger cars and LDV for modelling purposes

The main objective of this study was to parameterize the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of passenger cars and light-duty vehicles and all possible fuels in relation to the main influencing factors, like vehicle weight, engine power, aerodynamics, etc. In-use fuel consumption was reported to be higher than type-approval one by 15-20%. Correlation functions of fuel consumption with key vehicle specifications, such as mass, rated power, engine capacity, aerodynamic resistance and rolling resistance were then provided. Models of various degree of complexity were developed to predict in-use fuel consumption using vehicle specifications and type-approval data. The results of the study were used to improve the fuel consumption functions of the models COPERT and HBEFA. The study also made suggestion on how the type-approval procedure can be improved so that fuel consumption values are more realistic. Finally, the methods developed may be used to predict whether type-approval reductions expected from future vehicle technologies may result to equal reductions in real-world fuel consumption.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, IES

Contractor: EMISIA, TUG, INFRAS

Duration: 12/2009 to 10/2010

Graphical User Interface for the European Transport Model TREMOVE

An evaluation of the current TREMOVE Graphical User Interface functionalities will be performed. Additional functionalities will be designed and integrated in the model and the model core, currently based on TREMOVE v.3.1, will be updated to v.3.3.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, APEnvEcon

Duration: 12/2009 to 06/2010

Framework Contract for Expert Assistance in Transport and Environment

The main objectives of this framework contract are to develop and maintain transport and environment indicators and best practices; assess the environmental constraints and benefits of clean/low carbon transport technologies; provide regular updates on transport and environment indicators, including transport subsidies and fiscal instruments; assess the pressures associated with the demand for transport on the environment including energy efficiency and demand-side policies, choice of fuels, climate change mitigation, air pollution, noise and the costs, benefits and tradeoffs concerning environmental aspects, such as water and biodiversity, of these pathways.

Sponsor: European Environment Agency

Contractor: AEA, COWI, EMISIA, KTI, Acustica, Extrium

Duration: 12/2009 to 12/2011

Uncertainty/Sensitivity analysis of the transport model TREMOVE

The aim of this project was to estimate the uncertainty of the TREMOVE output and its sensitivity to the input variables. For the analysis, United Kingdom was examined as a test case and TREMOVE v3.3.1 was used. The study identified 14 variables that were found to be most important for the uncertainty of the model output. It also identified linear associations between output and input variables in several instances. Elasticities between intermodal shifts and other choices (vehicle types, fuels, etc.) appeared limited. Choices to decrease model uncertainty include better estimates for key input variables and simplification of the model structure.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, LWA

Duration: 09/2009 to 03/2011

Air pollution consequences of postponing the implementation date of EURO VI standards for heavy duty vehicles

Appropriate scenarios were setup using version 3.1 of the TREMOVE model, to assess the consequences on emissions and costs of postponing the implementation date of EURO VI emission limit values for Heavy Duty Vehicles by two years, i.e. from 2013 to 2015.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2009 to 11/2009

Recalculation of PTW emissions in accordance with the ACEM scenario

Four scenarios requested by ACEM on future emission standards for mopeds and motorcycles were simulated. Scenario 1 assumes the introduction of Euro 4 (2012) and Euro 5 (2015) motorcycles. Scenario 2 in addition considers the introduction of Euro 4 mopeds in 2015. Finally, two scenarios were executed where all conventional motorcycles and mopeds are replaced with new ones in the year 2012. The simulations showed that significant reductions may be achieved with the scenarios proposed. However, stabilization of PTW contribution to the 2007 level can be only achieved with old vehicle replacement.

Sponsor: European Motorcycle Manufacturers Association (ACEM)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2009 to 06/2009

Scenarios on the future regulation of Power Two Wheelers

The main objectives were to perform simulations for four scenarios requested by ACEM on future emission standards for mopeds and motorcycles. Scenario 1 assumed the introduction of Euro 4 (2012) and Euro 5 (2015) motorcycles. Scenario 2 in addition considered the introduction of Euro 4 mopeds in 2015. Finally, two scenarios were executed where all conventional motorcycles and mopeds are replaced with new ones in the year 2012.

Sponsor: ACEM

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 05/2009 to 06/2009

Uncertainty estimates and guidance for road transport emission calculations

The main objectives of this project was to evaluate the uncertainty linked with the various input parameters of the COPERT 4 model, assess the uncertainty of road transport emissions in two test cases at national level and include these uncertainty estimates in the COPERT 4 model. Furthermore, this information has been used to prepare guidance on the assessment of uncertainty for the Tier 3 methods (COPERT 4) and to provide uncertainty estimates for the Tier 2 method, to be included in the road transport chapter of the Atmospheric Emissions Inventory Guidebook.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Environment and Sustainability

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2009 to 10/2009

Euro 6 light duty vehicle OBD

The main objectives of the project is to critically review and assess the technical feasibility of positive-ignition and compression-ignition OBD monitoring techniques and hardware availability to establish by end-2010 and collect driving data from EU and US vehicles in order to provide a database of in-field OBD failures and frequency of such OBD failures. Based on the assessment of technical feasibility, likely scenarios for Euro 6 OBD thresholds will be developed and an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various OBD threshold scenarios will be conducted.

Sponsor: European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 01/2009 to 08/2011

Feasibility study for the development of evaporative emission factors from diesel vehicles and inclusion in the COPERT software

New emission factors for evaporative emissions from diesel vehicles have been developed based on the results of relevant mini-SHED tests. An emissions calculation tool based on the COPERT 4 methodology has been developed, which enables the calculation of evaporative emissions from the entire European vehicle fleet (ALL) and thus the assessment of the contribution of diesel vehicles to total evaporative emissions.

Sponsor: EVAL Europe N.V.

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 12/2008 to 02/2009

Update and further development of transport model TREMOVE

The aim of this project is to update and further improve the transport model TREMOVE with the latest available data (vehicle stock, fuel prices, taxation, mileages, v-km, p-km, t-km, …) and provide new baseline scenarios that would be in line with the involvement of TREMOVE in different projects (iTREN-2030 and EC4MACS).

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, TML, TRT, IFEU

Duration: 11/2008 to 01/2010

Development and application of a demonstrator for vehicle emissions calculation

In order to assess the environmental performance of vehicles equipped with the 'Clear Box', an emissions calculation tool based on the COPERT 4 software has been developed. Detailed trip and parking information in a high temporal resolution are used to calculate the pollutant and CO2 emissions and fuel consumption per vehicle and per trip. Emission results from vehicles equipped with PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement Systems) were utilised for the validation of the demonstrator.

Sponsor: Octo Telematics srl

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2008 to 03/2009

Application of TREMOVE to study the effects of CO2 regulations on technological improvements

The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the road transport stock, assuming different costs for the technology options foreseen to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars. Αn updated baseline of the TREMOVE model version 2.52 has been prepared in order to incorporate the latest fuel prices for the EU countries. The scenarios considered differed on the expected CO2 reductions from different technologies, the extent of penetration of new technologies and the corresponding additional costs to be applied on diesel and gasoline passenger cars for all countries.

Sponsor: German Aerospace Center (DLR)

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 09/2008 to 10/2008

Validation and Improvement of CORINAIR's Emission Factors for Road Transport using Real-World Emissions Measurements

Existing emission factors and methodologies included in COPERT will be reviewed and those in need of revision and/or validation will be identified. An experimental campaign will be set-up, in order to address the identified priorities in methodology and emission factor improvements. A calculation tool to collect and screen the measured data from the experimental campaign will then be developed. The calculation tool will include a methodology, which will be used to convert the collected data into useful emission factors and will be applied to develop relevant emission factors from a case-study.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Environment and Sustainability

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh, TU Graz

Duration: 09/2008 to 07/2009

Application of TREMOVE to study the effect of excise duties minima on road transport development

The aim of this exercise was to assess the impact of possible revision of the minimum levels of taxation for motor fuels to take into account their energy and carbon content. The effect on activity, emissions and road transport cost of applying 2 scenarios over the baseline development was calculated. The scenarios were determined by the European Commissions, were provided to the study team and were executed with TREMOVE version 2.52.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG TAXUD

Contractor: EMISIA

Duration: 06/2008 to 07/2008

Development of a Graphical User Interface for the TREMOVE model

A Graphical User Interface was developed as a MS Windows software tool to simplify and automate the use of the TREMOVE model. The TREMOVE GUI provides the user with an interface to create scenarios with the TREMOVE model and execute them. It provides a link between the input and output data and means to filter and export them from the TREMOVE database to an easy-to-use MS Excel file. It also allows the user to change the input data in order to create a new TREMOVE baseline.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG JRC, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies

Contractor: EMISIA, LAT/AUTh

Duration: 12/2007 to 11/2008

European Database of Vehicle Stock for the Calculation and Forecast of Pollutant and GHG Emissions with TREMOVE and COPERT

The project aimed at collecting updated information for the fleet structure and activity in all EU28 members states, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey. Information was collected on the data required by these two models, related to coverage, vehicle types and technologies and activity related information. Data were collected from different national and international sources resulting in the development of a consistent dataset for each country, to be used in COPERT and TREMOVE. The results were presented in a consistent manner for all countries, including emission comparisons with the national submissions and the results of the GAINS model. The results of this study were also made available on the web to be used as a guide for official data submission.

Sponsor: European Commission, DG Environment

Contractor: EMISIA, ICCS, Oekopol, Envicon, KTI, Renault

Duration: 01/2007 to 04/2008